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Large-scale comparative analysis of drug-target polymorphism structures enables the rational design of next generation 'super drugs'--drugs that are less prone to development of drug resistance or that work for the largest possible fraction of the patient population. Furthermore, knowledge of the drug-target-shape repertoire that exists within the patient(More)
Drug resistance resulting from reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations is one of the main obstacles to successful hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. Indeed, HBV treatment guidelines recommend HBV genotypic resistance testing for patients receiving nucleos(t)ide RT inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) who develop virological failure. N(t)RTI-resistance mutations at 10 RT(More)
Determining the phenotypic impacts of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on individual nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) has remained a statistical challenge because clinical NRTI-resistant HIV-1 isolates usually contain multiple mutations, often in complex patterns, complicating the task of determining the relative contribution of each mutation to HIV(More)
While the selection of amino acid insertions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a known mechanism of resistance against RT inhibitors, very few reports on the selection of insertions in the protease (PR) coding region have been published. It is still unclear whether these insertions impact protease inhibitor (PI) resistance(More)
Twenty-four of over 24,000 patients genotyped over the past 3 years were found to have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates that possess an insert in the protease gene. In this report, we evaluated the spectrum of protease gene insertion mutations in patient isolates and analyzed the effect of these various insertion mutations on viral phenotypes.(More)
OBJECTIVES The introduction of two new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in the past 5 years and the identification of novel NNRTI-associated mutations have made it necessary to reassess the extent of phenotypic NNRTI cross-resistance. METHODS We analysed a dataset containing 1975, 1967, 519 and 187 genotype-phenotype correlations(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid progression to AIDS after acute infection with a multidrug-resistant (MDR), dual-tropic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was reported in a New York City man (hereafter referred to as "NYC") who has sex with men. The probable source of this HIV-1 (hereafter referred to as "CT01") and the development of a recombinant MDR(More)
A two-amino acid insertion near codon 70 of the HIV-1 protease gene was found in an individual failing protease inhibitor therapy. Susceptibility of this strain to protease inhibitors was similar to that of non-insert-containing strains with comparable resistance mutations and one or more other major PI mutations.
We established a database of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) sequences and mutations to monitor the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance and mutational patterns in clinical samples submitted for testing to a major U.S. reference laboratory. At the end of 1998, 80% of the clinical samples tested harbored HIV strains with(More)
We have identified a rare HIV-1 protease (PR) mutation, I47A, associated with a high level of resistance to the protease inhibitor lopinavir (LPV) and with hypersusceptibility to the protease inhibitor saquinavir (SQV). The I47A mutation was found in 99 of 112,198 clinical specimens genotyped after LPV became available in late 2000, but in none of 24,426(More)