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This study was undertaken because there is a dearth of objective information in the literature on the clinical instability of the cervical spine below C2. To our knowledge, it is the first biomechanical investigation designed to analyze clinical stability. We have carried out a quantitative analysis of the behavior of the spine as a function of the(More)
We provide a new and more complete analysis of the origins of the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, one of the most severe environmental crises in North America in the twentieth century. Severe drought and wind erosion hit the Great Plains in 1930 and lasted through 1940. There were similar droughts in the 1950s and 1970s, but no comparable level of wind erosion. We(More)
Paradoxically, measurements of the loudness of tinnitus indicate that the noise is not a very loud one, yet many persons experiencing it report severe distress. It has been suggested that either loudness has not been measured correctly or that some other factor such as recruitment may be involved. These aspects were investigated, with the following results:(More)
Detailed information about tinnitus was obtained from over 1800 patients attending a tinnitus clinic. Patients rated their tinnitus severity on a scale from 1 to 10 and also provided information concerning the quality, duration, localization, and other attributes of their tinnitus. In addition to standard audiometric tests, patients received tests for(More)
Democracies often fail to aggregate information, while speculative markets excel at this task. We consider a new form of governance, wherein voters would say what we want, but speculators would say how to get it. Elected representatives would oversee the after-the-fact measurement of national welfare, while market speculators would say which policies they(More)
Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in human history, and the 21st century will witness even more rapid aging than did the century just past. Improvements in public health and medicine are having a profound effect on population demographics worldwide. By 2017, there will be more people over the age of 65 than under age 5, and by 2050, two(More)
The effectiveness of five cervical orthoses in restricting cervical motion was evaluated quantitatively in normal subjects using roentgenograms and overhead photographs made at the extremes of three planes of motion, while the effectiveness of the halo with a plastic body-vest was studied in seven patients with cervical fractures or local fusions. Flexion(More)
Four tests for the identification of tinnitus have been presented: pitch, loudness, maskability, and residual inhibition. The typical features of the tinnitus associated with Meniere's disease are as follows: 1. Usually the tinnitus is a low pitched noise. However, in the burned out condition it is often higher in pitch and tonal in quality. 2. The loudness(More)
a. Measurement efforts to reduce the uncertainty concerning the attributes of heterogeneous goods may simply redistribute wealth and result in social waste. Individuals bearing the cost of such distributional measurement have incentives to develop buying and selling practices that limit such measurement. We examine, both theoretically and empirically, the(More)