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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process(More)
In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence(More)
Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are 'altruistic' cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin-antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems in bacteria to combat phage and other foreign genetic elements. Typically, short spacer sequences are acquired from the invader DNA and incorporated into CRISPR arrays in the bacterial genome. Small RNAs are generated that(More)
Bacteriophages (phages) specifically infect bacteria and are the most abundant biological entities on Earth. The constant exposure to phage infection imposes a strong selective pressure on bacteria to develop viral resistance strategies that promote prokaryotic survival. Thus, this parasite-host relationship results in an evolutionary arms race of(More)
ICEMlSym(R7A) of Mesorhizobium loti is an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) that confers the ability to form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus species. Horizontal transfer is activated by TraR and N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which can stimulate ICE excision in 100% of cells. However, in wild-type cultures, the ICE is excised at low(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays and their CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins constitute adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea that provide protection from bacteriophages, plasmids and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Recently, the ability to direct these systems to DNA in a sequence-specific manner(More)
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