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Knowing the rate of addition of new granule cells to the adult dentate gyrus is critical to understanding the function of adult neurogenesis. Despite the large number of studies of neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, basic questions about the magnitude of this phenomenon have never been addressed. The S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has been(More)
Multipotential CNS stem cells receive and implement instructions governing differentiation to diverse neuronal and glial fates. Exploration of the mechanisms generating the many cell types of the brain depends crucially on markers identifying the stem cell state. We describe a gene whose expression distinguishes the stem cells from the more differentiated(More)
Although the source of embryonic stem (ES) cells presents ethical concerns, their use may lead to many clinical benefits if differentiated cell types can be derived from them and used to assemble functional organs. In pancreas, insulin is produced and secreted by specialized structures, islets of Langerhans. Diabetes, which affects 16 million people in the(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are clonal cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of the developing blastocyst that can proliferate extensively in vitro and are capable of adopting all the cell fates in a developing embryo. Clinical interest in the use of ES cells has been stimulated by studies showing that isolated human cells with ES properties from the(More)
Changes in intermediate filament gene expression occur at key steps in the differentiation of cell types in the mammalian CNS. Neuroepithelial stem cells express the intermediate filament protein nestin and down-regulate it sharply at the transition from proliferating stem cell to postmitotic neuron. Nestin is also expressed in muscle precursors but not in(More)
The production of hippocampal granule neurons continues throughout adulthood but dramatically decreases in old age. Here we show that reducing corticosteroid levels in aged rats restored the rate of cell proliferation, resulting in increased numbers of new granule neurons. This result indicates that the neuronal precursor population in the dentate gyrus(More)
Identifying the signals that regulate stem cell differentiation is fundamental to understanding cellular diversity in the brain. In this paper we identify factors that act in an instructive fashion to direct the differentiation of multipotential stem cells derived from the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). CNS stem cell clones differentiate to(More)
A major difficulty in studying early developmental processes and testing hypotheses of possible cellular mechanisms of development has been the inability to reproducibly identify specific cell types. We have generated monoclonal antibodies that distinguish among major cell types present during mammalian neurogenesis. These antibodies have been used to(More)
Standard cell culture systems impose environmental oxygen (O(2)) levels of 20%, whereas actual tissue O(2) levels in both developing and adult brain are an order of magnitude lower. To address whether proliferation and differentiation of CNS precursors in vitro are influenced by the O(2) environment, we analyzed embryonic day 12 rat mesencephalic precursor(More)
Nestin is a recently described member of the intermediate filament (IF) protein family that is especially abundant in neuroepithelial stem cells of the rat. The studies described here examine this class VI IF protein in the normal human developing central nervous system (CNS), human brain tumor-derived cell lines, and tissue samples of human CNS tumors.(More)