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Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (EGFR/ERBB1, ERBB2/HER2, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4) are key targets for inhibition in cancer therapy. Critical for activation is the formation of an asymmetric dimer by the intracellular kinase domains, in which the carboxy-terminal lobe (C lobe) of one kinase domain induces an active conformation in(More)
The induction of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, involves activation of a signalling system, many elements of which remain unknown. The sphingomyelin pathway, initiated by hydrolysis of the phospholipid sphingomyelin in the cell membrane to generate the second messenger ceramide, is thought to mediate apoptosis in response to tumour-necrosis factor(More)
To correlate the variable clinical features of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer with somatic alterations, we studied pretreatment tumour biopsies accrued from patients in two studies of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy by massively parallel sequencing and analysis. Eighteen significantly mutated genes were identified, including five genes(More)
To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic(More)
The sphingomyelin pathway, which is initiated by sphingomyelin hydrolysis to generate the second messenger ceramide, signals apoptosis for tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas, and ionizing radiation. In the present studies, the anticancer drug daunorubicin also stimulated ceramide elevation and apoptosis in P388 and U937 cells. Cell-permeable analogs of(More)
  • Ron Bose, Shyam M Kavuri, +11 authors Matthew J Ellis
  • 2013
UNLABELLED Data from 8 breast cancer genome-sequencing projects identified 25 patients with HER2 somatic mutations in cancers lacking HER2 gene amplification. To determine the phenotype of these mutations, we functionally characterized 13 HER2 mutations using in vitro kinase assays, protein structure analysis, cell culture, and xenograft experiments. Seven(More)
Her2/neu (Her2) is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the EGF receptor (EGFR)/ErbB family and is overexpressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers. We sought to characterize Her2 signal transduction pathways further by using MS-based quantitative proteomics. Stably transfected cell lines overexpressing Her2 or empty vector were generated, and the effect of an(More)
We report the results of whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 17 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We identified 3,726 point mutations and more than 90 indels in the coding sequence, with an average mutation frequency more than 10-fold higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Novel(More)
The Reaper (Rpr) gene encodes a 65-amino acid protein that induces apoptosis in Drosophila by an unknown mechanism. A previous study reported that Rpr expression induced generation of the lipid second messenger ceramide and through use of the peptide caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone(zVAD.fmk ) ordered ceramide generation(More)
The Drug-Gene Interaction database (DGIdb) mines existing resources that generate hypotheses about how mutated genes might be targeted therapeutically or prioritized for drug development. It provides an interface for searching lists of genes against a compendium of drug-gene interactions and potentially 'druggable' genes. DGIdb can be accessed at(More)