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Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant(More)
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal(More)
Operant conditioning is characterized by the contingent reinforcement of a designated behavior. Previously, feeding behavior in Aplysia has been demonstrated to be modified by operant conditioning, and a neural pathway (esophageal nerve; E n.) that mediates some aspects of reinforcement has been identified. As a first step toward a cellular analysis of(More)
Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release(More)
Associative learning in goal-directed behaviors, in contrast to reflexive behaviors, can alter processes of decision-making in the selection of appropriate action and its initiation, thereby enabling animals, including humans, to gain a predictive understanding of their external environment. In the mollusc Aplysia, recent studies on appetitive operant(More)
Behavioral adaptations and the underlying neural plasticity may not simply result from peripheral information conveyed by sensory inputs. Central neuronal networks often spontaneously generate neuronal activity patterns that may also contribute to sensorimotor integration and behavioral adaptations. The present study explored a novel form of sensory-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Learning in exploratory and goal-directed behaviors can modify decision-making processes in the initiation of appropriate action and thereby transform the irregular and infrequent expression of such behaviors into inflexible, compulsive-like repetitive actions. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such learning-derived behavioral(More)
Motivated behaviors comprise appetitive actions whose occurrence results partly from an internally driven incentive to act. Such impulsive behavior can also be regulated by external rewarding stimuli that, through learning processes, can lead to accelerated and seemingly automatic, compulsive-like recurrences of the rewarded act. Here, we explored such(More)
Whereas major insights into the neuronal basis of adaptive behavior have been gained from the study of automatic behaviors, including reflexive and rhythmic motor acts, the neural substrates for goal-directed behaviors in which decision-making about action selection and initiation are crucial, remain poorly understood. However, the mollusk Aplysia is(More)
The present study examined the correlation between the level of activity neuron B52 and the transition from protraction to retraction phases of buccal motor patterns (BMPs) and the termination of the BMPs. The level of activity in B52 during the protraction phase was positively correlated with the duration of that phase. A second burst of activity in B52(More)