Learn More
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant(More)
Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal(More)
Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release(More)
Operant conditioning is characterized by the contingent reinforcement of a designated behavior. Previously, feeding behavior in Aplysia has been demonstrated to be modified by operant conditioning, and a neural pathway (esophageal nerve; E n.) that mediates some aspects of reinforcement has been identified. As a first step toward a cellular analysis of(More)
BACKGROUND Learning in exploratory and goal-directed behaviors can modify decision-making processes in the initiation of appropriate action and thereby transform the irregular and infrequent expression of such behaviors into inflexible, compulsive-like repetitive actions. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such learning-derived behavioral(More)
Associative learning in goal-directed behaviors, in contrast to reflexive behaviors, can alter processes of decision-making in the selection of appropriate action and its initiation, thereby enabling animals, including humans, to gain a predictive understanding of their external environment. In the mollusc Aplysia, recent studies on appetitive operant(More)
Motivated behaviors comprise appetitive actions whose occurrence results partly from an internally driven incentive to act. Such impulsive behavior can also be regulated by external rewarding stimuli that, through learning processes, can lead to accelerated and seemingly automatic, compulsive-like recurrences of the rewarded act. Here, we explored such(More)
The present study examined the correlation between the level of activity neuron B52 and the transition from protraction to retraction phases of buccal motor patterns (BMPs) and the termination of the BMPs. The level of activity in B52 during the protraction phase was positively correlated with the duration of that phase. A second burst of activity in B52(More)
In this work, we show the feasibility of performing functional MRI studies with single-cell resolution. At ultrahigh magnetic field, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy allows the identification of most motor neurons in the buccal network of Aplysia at low, nontoxic Mn(2+) concentrations. We establish that Mn(2+) accumulates intracellularly on(More)
Exploring the pathways of manganese (Mn(2+)) transport in the nervous system becomes of interest as many recent studies use Mn(2+) as a neural tract tracer in mammals. In this study, we performed manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) at 17.2 T on the buccal ganglia of Aplysia californica. The main advantage of this model over mammalian systems is that it contains(More)