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Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is a potential pandemic threat with human-adapted strains resistant to antiviral drugs. Although virtual screening (VS) against a crystal or relaxed receptor structure is an established method to identify potential inhibitors, the more dynamic changes within binding sites are neglected. To accommodate full receptor(More)
The recently discovered 150-cavity in the active site of group-1 influenza A neuraminidase (NA) proteins provides a target for rational structure-based drug development to counter the increasing frequency of antiviral resistance in influenza. Surprisingly, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (09N1) neuraminidase was crystalized without the 150-cavity(More)
BACKGROUND Neglected tropical diseases, including diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei, cost tens of millions of disability-adjusted life-years annually. As the current treatments for African trypanosomiasis and other similar infections are limited, new therapeutics are urgently needed. RNA Editing Ligase 1 (REL1), a(More)
The comparative dynamics and inhibitor binding free energies of group-1 and group-2 pathogenic influenza A subtype neuraminidase (NA) enzymes are of fundamental biological interest and relevant to structure-based drug design studies for antiviral compounds. In this work, we present seven generalized Born molecular dynamics simulations of avian (N1)- and(More)
The interactions among associating (macro)molecules are dynamic, which adds to the complexity of molecular recognition. While ligand flexibility is well accounted for in computational drug design, the effective inclusion of receptor flexibility remains an important challenge. The relaxed complex scheme (RCS) is a promising computational methodology that(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the age specific prevalence of impairment and disability relating to hemiplegic stroke in one rural area of Tanzania. METHODS During the yearly house to house census of the study population of 148 135 (85 152 aged 15 and over) in August 1994, specific questions were asked to identify those who might be disabled from stroke. People(More)
Conventional drug design embraces the "one gene, one drug, one disease" philosophy. Polypharmacology, which focuses on multi-target drugs, has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery. The rational design of drugs that act via polypharmacological mechanisms can produce compounds that exhibit increased therapeutic potency and against which resistance is(More)
Allosteric regulation in biological systems is of considerable interest given the vast number of proteins that exhibit such behavior. Network models obtained from molecular dynamics simulations have been shown to be powerful tools for the analysis of allostery. In this work, different coarse-grain residue representations (nodes) are used together with a(More)
The influenza virus subtype H5N1 has raised concerns of a possible human pandemic threat because of its high virulence and mutation rate. Although several approved anti-influenza drugs effectively target the neuraminidase, some strains have already acquired resistance to the currently available anti-influenza drugs. In this study, we present the synergistic(More)
The calculation of protein interaction energetics is of fundamental interest, yet accurate quantities are difficult to obtain due to the complex and dynamic nature of protein interfaces. This is further complicated by the presence of water molecules, which can exhibit transient interactions of variable duration and strength with the protein surface. The(More)