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The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit(More)
If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely(More)
Both membranes of Mycoplasma laidlawii and water dispersions of protein-free membrane lipids exhibit thermal phase transitions that can be detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The transition temperatures are lowered by increased unsaturation in the fatty acid residues, but in each case they are the same for membranes and lipids. The transitions(More)
There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop(More)
How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, including food webs, antagonistic and mutualistic networks, and(More)
Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths,(More)
The uptake of polystyrene latex beads (approximately 0.75 micrometers) and glutaraldehyde-treated erythrocytes by human corneal stromal keratocytes maintained in culture has been studied. Combined phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopic observations on individual cells after exposure to either beads or erythrocytes demonstrated that the majority of(More)
Ecological interactions between crops and wild animals frequently result in increases or declines in crop yield. Yet, positive and negative interactions have mostly been treated independently, owing partly to disciplinary silos in ecological and agricultural sciences. We advocate a new integrated research paradigm that explicitly recognizes cost-benefit(More)
A separation procedure has been developed for mouse splenic T and B lymphocytes which is based on their differential agglutination by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). In the presence of 50-100 micrograms/ml of WGA, multicellular aggregates are formed which are enriched in B cells. These aggregates can be separated from monodisperse T cells by gravity(More)
Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe,(More)