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This review gives an introduction into ligand - receptor docking and illustrates the basic underlying concepts. An overview of different approaches and algorithms is provided. Although the application of docking and scoring has led to some remarkable successes, there are still some major challenges ahead, which are outlined here as well. Approaches to(More)
Blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by uncompetitive antagonists has implications for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy of various neuropsychiatric diseases. Since the three-dimensional (3D) structure of this ion channel is unknown, the structural requirements for uncompetitive inhibition were investigated by application of a three-step(More)
Cyclophilin A (CypA) was determined to interact with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) by mass spectroscopy, coimmunoprecipitation, pull-down assays, and molecular modeling. During the initial, caspase-independent stage of chromatin condensation that accompanies apoptosis, AIF and CypA were found to coimmunolocalize in the nucleus. Recombinant AIF and CypA(More)
The structure of human Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) comprising the two C-terminal domains (JH1 and JH2) was predicted by application of homology modelling techniques. JH1 and JH2 represent the tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase-like domains, respectively, and are crucial for function and regulation of the protein. A comparison between the structures of the two(More)
To address the question of whether established or experimental anticancer chemotherapeutics can exert their cytotoxic effects by autophagy, we performed a high-content screen on a set of cytotoxic agents. We simultaneously determined parameters of autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis on cells exposed to -1400 compounds. Many agents induced a 'pure' autophagic,(More)
Aiming at new drugs to efficiently treat diseases, in which either increased or decreased levels of active vitamin D are desirable, we have designed some 400 structurally different azole-type inhibitors and examined their capacity to selectively block vitamin D metabolism by CYP24 or synthesis by CYP27B, in human keratinocytes. Based on resulting data, we(More)
In a screen designed to identify novel inducers of autophagy, we discovered that STAT3 inhibitors potently stimulate the autophagic flux. Accordingly, genetic inhibition of STAT3 stimulated autophagy in vitro and in vivo, while overexpression of STAT3 variants, encompassing wild-type, nonphosphorylatable, and extranuclear STAT3, inhibited starvation-induced(More)
The conformation of phenyl-substituted monosaccharides (mannose, galactose, and glucose) and their singly hydrated complexes has been investigated in the gas phase by means of a combination of mass selected, conformer specific ultraviolet and infrared double resonance hole burning spectroscopy experiments, and ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. In(More)
A theoretical model of human Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) comprising all seven Janus homology domains is presented. The model was generated by application of homology modelling approaches. The three-dimensional structure contains, starting from the N-terminus, FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin), SH2 (Src homology region 2), tyrosine kinase-like, and tyrosine(More)
The beta(1-->4) glycosidic linkage found in lactose is a prevalent structural motif in many carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Using UV and IR ion-dip spectroscopies to probe benzyl lactoside isolated in the gas phase, we find that the disaccharide unit adopts only a single, rigid structure. Its fully resolved infrared ion-dip spectrum is in excellent(More)