Romano T. Kroemer

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Inhibitors of HIV protease have been shown to have antiapoptotic effects in vitro, yet whether these effects are seen in vivo remains controversial. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) nelfinavir, boosted with ritonavir, in models of nonviral disease associated with excessive apoptosis. In mice with Fas-induced(More)
Cyclophilin A (CypA) was determined to interact with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) by mass spectroscopy, coimmunoprecipitation, pull-down assays, and molecular modeling. During the initial, caspase-independent stage of chromatin condensation that accompanies apoptosis, AIF and CypA were found to coimmunolocalize in the nucleus. Recombinant AIF and CypA(More)
The structure of human Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) comprising the two C-terminal domains (JH1 and JH2) was predicted by application of homology modelling techniques. JH1 and JH2 represent the tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase-like domains, respectively, and are crucial for function and regulation of the protein. A comparison between the structures of the two(More)
To address the question of whether established or experimental anticancer chemotherapeutics can exert their cytotoxic effects by autophagy, we performed a high-content screen on a set of cytotoxic agents. We simultaneously determined parameters of autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis on cells exposed to -1400 compounds. Many agents induced a 'pure' autophagic,(More)
Blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by uncompetitive antagonists has implications for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy of various neuropsychiatric diseases. Since the three-dimensional (3D) structure of this ion channel is unknown, the structural requirements for uncompetitive inhibition were investigated by application of a three-step(More)
In a screen designed to identify novel inducers of autophagy, we discovered that STAT3 inhibitors potently stimulate the autophagic flux. Accordingly, genetic inhibition of STAT3 stimulated autophagy in vitro and in vivo, while overexpression of STAT3 variants, encompassing wild-type, nonphosphorylatable, and extranuclear STAT3, inhibited starvation-induced(More)
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein, which upon apoptosis induction translocates to the nucleus where it interacts with DNA by virtue of positive charges clustered on the AIF surface. Here we show that the AIF interactome, as determined by mass spectroscopy, contains a large panel of ribonucleoproteins, which apparently bind to(More)
The conformation of phenyl-substituted monosaccharides (mannose, galactose, and glucose) and their singly hydrated complexes has been investigated in the gas phase by means of a combination of mass selected, conformer specific ultraviolet and infrared double resonance hole burning spectroscopy experiments, and ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. In(More)
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibits apoptosis and thereby increases the survival of cells exposed to a wide range of lethal stimuli. HSP70 has also been shown to increase the tumorigenicity of cancer cells in rodent models. The protective function of this chaperone involves interaction and neutralization of the caspase activator apoptotic protease(More)
Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling 1 (SOCS-1) is one of the proteins responsible for the negative regulation of the JAK-STAT pathway triggered by many cytokines. This important inhibition involves complex formation between SOCS-1 and JAK2, which requires particular structural domains (KIR, ESS and SH2) on SOCS-1. A three-dimensional theoretical model of(More)