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This review gives an introduction into ligand - receptor docking and illustrates the basic underlying concepts. An overview of different approaches and algorithms is provided. Although the application of docking and scoring has led to some remarkable successes, there are still some major challenges ahead, which are outlined here as well. Approaches to(More)
The structure of human Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) comprising the two C-terminal domains (JH1 and JH2) was predicted by application of homology modelling techniques. JH1 and JH2 represent the tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase-like domains, respectively, and are crucial for function and regulation of the protein. A comparison between the structures of the two(More)
Six docking programs (FlexX, GOLD, ICM, LigandFit, the Northwestern University version of DOCK, and QXP) were evaluated in terms of their ability to reproduce experimentally observed binding modes (poses) of small-molecule ligands to macromolecular targets. The accuracy of a pose was assessed in two ways: First, the RMS deviation of the predicted pose from(More)
A large-scale evaluation and comparison of four cavity detection algorithms was carried out. The algorithms SiteFinder, fpocket, PocketFinder, and SiteMap were evaluated on a protein test set containing 5416 protein-ligand complexes and 9900 apo forms, corresponding to a subset of the set used earlier for benchmarking the PocketFinder algorithm. For the(More)
Inhibitors of HIV protease have been shown to have antiapoptotic effects in vitro, yet whether these effects are seen in vivo remains controversial. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) nelfinavir, boosted with ritonavir, in models of nonviral disease associated with excessive apoptosis. In mice with Fas-induced(More)
A theoretical model of human Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) comprising all seven Janus homology domains is presented. The model was generated by application of homology modelling approaches. The three-dimensional structure contains, starting from the N-terminus, FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin), SH2 (Src homology region 2), tyrosine kinase-like, and tyrosine(More)
Novel scoring functions that predict the affinity of a ligand for its receptor have been developed. They were built with several statistical tools (partial least squares, genetic algorithms, neural networks) and trained on a data set of 100 crystal structures of receptor-ligand complexes, with affinities spanning 10 log units. The new scoring functions(More)
A general introduction to molecular modelling techniques in the area of protein-ligand interactions is given. Methods covered range from binding-site analysis to statistical treatment of sets of ligands. The main focus of this paper is on docking and scoring. After an outline of the main concepts, two specific application examples are given.
The steric descriptors commonly used in CoMFA--Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential-derived interaction energies calculated between a probe atom and the molecules under investigation--have been replaced by variables indicating the presence of an atom of a particular molecule in predefined volume elements (cubes) within the region enclosing the ensemble of(More)