Roman V. Agafonov

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Nitroxide radicals are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of chemistry and biology. In this work, we describe pH-sensitive imidazoline- and imidazolidine-based nitroxides with pK values in the range 4.7-7.6 (2,2,3,4,5,5-hexamethylperhydroimidazol-1-oxyl, 4-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-oxyl,(More)
Spin-labeling and multifrequency EPR spectroscopy were used to probe the dynamic local structure of skeletal myosin in the region of force generation. Subfragment 1 (S1) of rabbit skeletal myosin was labeled with an iodoacetamide spin label at C707 (SH1). X- and W-band EPR spectra were recorded for the apo state and in the presence of ADP and nucleotide(More)
Molecular recognition plays a central role in biology, and protein dynamics has been acknowledged to be important in this process. However, it is highly debated whether conformational changes happen before ligand binding to produce a binding-competent state (conformational selection) or are caused in response to ligand binding (induced fit). Proposals for(More)
We have used two complementary time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, dipolar electron-electron resonance and fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine conformational changes in a single structural element of the myosin motor domain, the relay helix, before and after the recovery stroke. Two double-Cys mutants were labeled with optical probes or(More)
We have engineered a mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) myosin II that contains the same fast-reacting "SH1" thiol as in muscle myosin, spin-labeled it, and performed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to compare the structure of the force-generating region of the two myosins. Dicty myosin serves as a model system for muscle myosin because of(More)
For many proteins, especially for molecular motors and other enzymes, the functional mechanisms remain unsolved due to a gap between static structural data and kinetics. We have filled this gap by detecting structure and kinetics simultaneously. This structural kinetics experiment is made possible by a new technique, (TR)(2)FRET (transient time-resolved(More)
Kinases perform phosphoryl-transfer reactions in milliseconds; without enzymes, these reactions would take about 8,000 years under physiological conditions. Despite extensive studies, a comprehensive understanding of kinase energy landscapes, including both chemical and conformational steps, is lacking. Here we scrutinize the microscopic steps in the(More)
With early life likely to have existed in a hot environment, enzymes had to cope with an inherent drop in catalytic speed caused by lowered temperature. Here we characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying thermoadaptation of enzyme catalysis in adenylate kinase using ancestral sequence reconstruction spanning 3 billion years of evolution. We show that(More)
Macromolecular function is rooted in energy landscapes, where sequence determines not a single structure but an ensemble of conformations. Hence, evolution modifies a protein's function by altering its energy landscape. Here, we recreate the evolutionary pathway between two modern human oncogenes, Src and Abl, by reconstructing their common ancestors. Our(More)
Sophisticated protein kinase networks, empowering complexity in higher organisms, are also drivers of devastating diseases such as cancer. Accordingly, these enzymes have become major drug targets of the twenty-first century. However, the holy grail of designing specific kinase inhibitors aimed at specific cancers has not been found. Can new approaches in(More)