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Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRH-R) complementary DNAs have been cloned from several species. The deduced amino acid sequences are compatible with TRH-R being a seven-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. These complementary DNAs and reagents derived from them have permitted detailed study of TRH-R biology at the molecular and(More)
The detection of sweet-tasting compounds is mediated in large part by a heterodimeric receptor comprised of T1R2+T1R3. Lactisole, a broad-acting sweet antagonist, suppresses the sweet taste of sugars, protein sweeteners, and artificial sweeteners. Lactisole's inhibitory effect is specific to humans and other primates; lactisole does not affect responses to(More)
The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric(More)
Acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) are characterized by a high net negative charge and by an uneven surface charge distribution, giving rise to a negative electrostatic potential extending over most of the molecular surface. To evaluate the contribution of these electrostatic properties to the catalytic efficiency, 20 single- and multiple-site mutants of human(More)
It is well recognized that base sequence exerts a significant influence on the properties of DNA and plays a significant role in protein-DNA interactions vital for cellular processes. Understanding and predicting base sequence effects requires an extensive structural and dynamic dataset which is currently unavailable from experiment. A consortium of(More)
Definition of the unfolded state of proteins is essential for understanding their stability and folding on biological timescales. Here, we find that under near physiological conditions the configurational ensemble of the unfolded state of the simplest protein structure, polyalanine alpha-helix, cannot be described by the commonly used Flory random coil(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), like most small ligands, appears to bind within the seven transmembrane-spanning helices (TMs) of its G protein-coupled receptor (TRH-R). A role for the extracellular loops (ECLs) of TRH-R has not been established. We substituted residues in the ECLs of TRH-R and show that Tyr-181 is important for high-affinity binding(More)
Because charged residues at the intracellular ends of transmembrane helix (TMH) 2 and TMH3 of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) affect signaling, we performed mutational analysis of these residues in the constitutively signaling Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus GPCR (KSHV-GPCR). KSHV-GPCR contains the amino acid sequence Val-Arg-Tyr rather than the(More)
2-Aminopurine (2AP) is an analogue of adenine that has been utilized widely as a fluorescence probe of protein-induced local conformational changes in DNA. Within a DNA strand, this fluorophore demonstrates characteristic decreases in quantum yield and emission decay lifetime that vary sensitively with base sequence, temperature, and helix conformation but(More)
The artificial sweetener cyclamate tastes sweet to humans, but not to mice. When expressed in vitro, the human sweet receptor (a heterodimer of two taste receptor subunits: hT1R2 + hT1R3) responds to cyclamate, but the mouse receptor (mT1R2 + mT1R3) does not. Using mixed-species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits, we determined that(More)