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(1) A non-invasive technique for stress assessment is needed. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in chicken droppings was established and validated. (2) Radiolabelled corticosterone was administered intravenously to detect the time course of excreted metabolites. The metabolites were then characterised by(More)
The yolk of avian eggs contains steroid hormones, which may influence the development and behaviour of hatched birds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration as well as the distribution of various gonadal steroids in the yolk spheres of quail eggs. Steroid concentrations of dissected yolk layers were analysed after alcoholic(More)
Birds are discussed as models for prenatal stress. In this study, several experiments were conducted to gain basic knowledge of if, how, and when maternal adrenocortical activity is reflected by corticosterone concentrations in the egg. Radiolabeled corticosterone was administered to 10 laying hens to investigate the uptake into as well as the distribution(More)
In recent years polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become widely used as methods to confirm the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry flocks, but there has been limited standardization of the protocols used. Thirteen laboratories from five different countries participated in an interlaboratory comparison of(More)
Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for(More)
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, which has been associated with avian mortality in Austria since 2001. The affected birds are predominantly Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula). In the present study, the pathogenicity of USUV for domestic geese (Anser anser f. domestica) was investigated. Eleven(More)
An in-situ hybridization (ISH) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in paraffin wax-embedded tissues with a digoxigenin-labelled probe targeting the 18S rRNA. This technique was used in addition to traditional methods, such as haematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff reaction, transmission electron microscopy and the(More)
In summer 2001, Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was isolated for the first time in Europe during a mortality incident among Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) in Austria. Chickens are frequently used as sentinel animals for arbovirus surveillance systems. In the present study, the pathogenicity of USUV for specific pathogen free chickens(More)
Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden’s largest chemical cluster is analysed using the Total Site(More)