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The aim of this study was to test whether environmental enrichment alters the status and responsiveness of pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic-adrenomedullary hormones in rats. Previous studies have shown that rats kept in an enriched environment differ from those kept in standard cages in dendritic branching, synaptogenesis, memory function,(More)
The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,(More)
Lewis rats that are known to be addiction-prone, develop compulsive running if they have access to running wheels. The present experiments were aimed 1) to evaluate the activation of stress systems following chronic and acute voluntary wheel running in Lewis rats by measurement of hormone release and gene expression of neuropeptides related to(More)
Contradicting data are available on stress responsiveness in subjects with high anxiety. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that high trait anxiety is associated with impaired coordination of the stress response, rather than global hypo- or hyper-responsiveness. The sample consisted of subjects with high (n=15) and with low (n=12) trait anxiety.(More)
Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and catecholamines are suggested to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of depression. In the present study we investigated gene expression of CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the locus coeruleus (LC) in an experimental model of depression. A chronic mild(More)
BACKGROUND Stress is an important factor in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Stress also potentiates anxiety-like response in animals, but empirical evidence for a similar effect in humans is still lacking. METHODS To test whether stress increases anxiety in humans, we examined the ability of a social stressor (speech and a counting(More)
Altered stress responsiveness has been repeatedly related to mood and anxiety disorders. In a traditional view, a reduction of the stress response has been thought favorable. The goal of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that high anxiety is accompanied by enhanced hormone release during stress. Healthy subjects at the upper (anxious, n = 15)(More)
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic inflammation was(More)
Neuroendocrine activation during stress is affected by many factors contributing to the variability of the stress response. The present study was aimed at evaluating long-term changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function and in hedonic behavior in adult offspring prenatally stressed by maternal food restriction, with attention on(More)