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OBJECTIVE To provide an update to the original Surviving Sepsis Campaign clinical management guidelines, "Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock," published in 2004. DESIGN Modified Delphi method with a consensus conference of 55 international experts, several subsequent meetings of subgroups and key(More)
OBJECTIVE To revise the "Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Sustained Use of Sedatives and Analgesics in the Critically Ill Adult" published in Critical Care Medicine in 2002. METHODS The American College of Critical Care Medicine assembled a 20-person, multidisciplinary, multi-institutional task force with expertise in guideline development, pain,(More)
The different measurement properties necessary for instruments whose goal is to detect differences between subjects at a single point in time (discriminative instruments) and those whose goal is to detect longitudinal change within subjects (evaluative instruments) is becoming increasingly recognized. Up to now, requirements for evaluative instruments have(More)
BACKGROUND Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach(More)
OBJECTIVE Circulatory shock is a life-threatening syndrome resulting in multiorgan failure and a high mortality rate. The aim of this consensus is to provide support to the bedside clinician regarding the diagnosis, management and monitoring of shock. METHODS The European Society of Intensive Care Medicine invited 12 experts to form a Task Force to update(More)
INTRODUCTION Although intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill adults, it remains unknown if prevention or treatment of these conditions improves patient outcomes. We sought to identify evidence-based risk factors for IAH and ACS in order to guide(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality in the developed world. Along with appropriate prophylaxis and therapy, prevention of death from PE in pregnancy requires a high index of clinical suspicion followed by a timely and accurate diagnostic approach. METHODS To provide guidance on this important health issue, a(More)
In the second of four articles, the authors discuss the "estimation" approach to interpreting study results. Whereas, in hypothesis testing, study results lead the reader to reject or accept a null hypothesis, in estimation the reader can assess whether a result is strong or weak, definitive or not. A confidence interval, based on the observed result and(More)