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Program comprehension processes have previously been studied using methodologies such as think-aloud or comprehension summary analysis. Eye-tracking, however, has not been previously widely applied to studies of behavioral aspects of programming. We present a study in which program comprehension was investigated with a help of a remote eye-tracker. Novice(More)
The challenges in empirical eye-tracking studies of usability or complex problem solving include 1) how to effectively analyze the eye-tracking data, and 2) how to interpret and relate the resulting measures to the user cognitive processing. We conducted a reanalysis of eye-tracking data from a recent study that involved programmers of two experience groups(More)
The focus of the research in human-computer interaction (HCI) continues to expand. One example of this is the growing interest in national and ethnic culture as a research topic. In this review, we examine the emerging field of cultural HCI by systematically analysing culture-related literature from five major HCI forums and past sixteen years. We focus on(More)
This paper describes a study of Java program debugging using a multiple window software debugging environment (SDE). In this study we have replicated an earlier study by Romero et al. (2002a, 2002b, 2003), but with the difference of using both the Restricted Focus Viewer and the eye tracking equipment to track the visual attention of the subjects. The study(More)
We analyze the Computing Education Research (CER) literature to discover what theories, conceptual models and frameworks recent CER builds on. This gives rise to a broad understanding of the theoretical basis of CER that is useful for researchers working in that area, and has the potential to help CER develop its own identity as an independent field of(More)
Interaction error prevention needs to start from a good understanding of the context of an error. One of the central issues in gaze-interaction research is the suppression of the so-called Midas touch: the interface's incorrect evaluation of user gaze as a purposeful interaction command. We conduct a detailed analysis of numerous instances of these events(More)
Interaction intent prediction and the Midas touch have been a longstanding challenge for eye-tracking researchers and users of gaze-based interaction. Inspired by machine learning approaches in biometric person authentication, we developed and tested an offline framework for task-independent prediction of interaction intents. We describe the principles of(More)