Roman Bednarik

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Program comprehension processes have previously been studied using methodologies such as think-aloud or comprehension summary analysis. Eye-tracking, however, has not been previously widely applied to studies of behavioral aspects of programming. We present a study in which program comprehension was investigated with a help of a remote eye-tracker. Novice(More)
Interaction intent prediction and the Midas touch have been a longstanding challenge for eye-tracking researchers and users of gaze-based interaction. Inspired by machine learning approaches in biometric person authentication, we developed and tested an offline framework for task-independent prediction of interaction intents. We describe the principles of(More)
This paper presents a preliminary analysis of research papers in computing education. While previous analysis has explored what research is being done in computing education, this project explores how that research is being done. We present our classification system, then the results of applying it to the papers from all five years of ICER. We find that(More)
When using a multiparty video mediated system, interacting participants assume a range of various roles and exhibit behaviors according to how engaged in the communication they are. In this paper we focus on estimation of conversational engagement from gaze signal. In particular, we present an annotation scheme for conversational engagement, a statistical(More)
We propose a person authentication system using eye movement signals. In security scenarios, eye-tracking has earlier been used for gaze-based password entry. A few authors have also used physical features of eye movement signals for authentication in a <i>task-dependent scenario</i> with matched training and test samples. We propose and implement a(More)
The challenges in empirical eye-tracking studies of usability or complex problem solving include 1) how to effectively analyze the eye-tracking data, and 2) how to interpret and relate the resulting measures to the user cognitive processing. We conducted a reanalysis of eye-tracking data from a recent study that involved programmers of two experience groups(More)
The purpose of program visualization is to illustrate some aspects of the execution of a program. A number of program visualization tools have been developed to support teaching and learning of programming, but only few have been empirically evaluated. Moreover, the dynamics of gaze behavior during program visualization has not been investigated using eye(More)