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Each species generally has a close relationship with one or more habitats and can therefore be classified as either specialist or generalist. We studied whether specialist and generalist species are spatially distributed independently of each other. Repeating the analysis for 100 of the most frequent terrestrial bird species recorded over the 10 000 sampled(More)
Range shifts of many species are now documented as a response to global warming. But whether these observed changes are occurring fast enough remains uncertain and hardly quantifiable. Here, we developed a simple framework to measure change in community composition in response to climate warming. This framework is based on a community temperature index(More)
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites has been proposed as a mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in both host and parasite populations. In particular, the high level of genetic diversity usually observed at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is generally thought to be maintained by parasite-driven selection. Among the possible(More)
We studied the community richness and dynamics of birds in landscapes recently affected by urbanization to test the prediction that biotic communities living in degraded landscapes are increasingly composed of generalist species. We analyzed bird communities in 657 plots monitored by the French Breeding Bird Survey from 2001 to 2005, accounting for the(More)
Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc) play a fundamental role during the immune response because MHC molecules expressed on cell surface allow the recognition and presentation of antigenic peptides to T-lymphocytes. Although Mhc alleles have been found to correlate with pathogen resistance in several host-parasite systems, several studies have(More)
Without robust and unbiased systems for monitoring, changes in natural systems will remain enigmatic for policy makers, leaving them without a clear idea of the consequences of any environmental policies they might adopt. Generally, biodiversity-monitoring activities are not integrated or evaluated across any large geographic region. The EuMon project(More)
Because pollen disperses and ovules do not, a basic difference in dispersal abilities of male and female gametes exists in plants. With an analytical model, we show that the combination of such sex-biased dispersal of gametes and variation of habitat quality results in two opposite selective forces acting on the evolution of sex allocation in plants: (i) a(More)
Taking the opportunity in 2003 of the exceptionally warm spring in France as a natural simulation of possible future climate, we analysed common bird productivity using the French long-term capture-recapture national monitoring scheme. Two-thirds of the 32 species studied had an above-average productivity in 2003. However, this gain in productivity was not(More)
BACKGROUND The metacommunity framework is crucial to the study of functional relations along environmental gradients. Changes in resource grain associated with increasing habitat fragmentation should generate uncoupled responses of interacting species with contrasted dispersal abilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here we tested whether the intensity(More)
Spatial heterogeneity, especially in mortality risk, is a major factor shaping population dynamics. Here we study the impacts of spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure on the demography of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola, a relatively long-lived migratory game bird. We develop capture–recapture–recovery models in which both seasonality and spatial(More)