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The adaptation against foreign nucleic acids by the CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) depends on the insertion of foreign nucleic acid-derived sequences into the CRISPR array as novel spacers by still unknown mechanism. We identified and characterized in Escherichia coli intermediate(More)
BACKGROUND 6S RNA from E. coli is known to bind to RNA polymerase interfering with transcription initiation. Because 6S RNA concentrations are maximal at stationary phase and binding occurs preferentially to the holoenzyme associated with sigma(70) (Esigma(70)) it is believed that 6S RNA supports adjustment to stationary phase transcription. Previous(More)
The adaptive immunity of bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, mediated by CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), relies on the specific incorporation of short pieces of the invading foreign DNA into a special genomic locus, termed CRISPR array. The stored sequences (spacers) are subsequently used in the form of small RNAs(More)
BACKGROUND Among the seven different sigma factors in E. coli σ(70) has the highest concentration and affinity for the core RNA polymerase. The E. coli protein Rsd is regarded as an anti-sigma factor, inhibiting σ(70)-dependent transcription at the onset of stationary growth. Although binding of Rsd to σ(70) has been shown and numerous structural studies on(More)
All ribosomal RNAs are preceded by leader sequences not present in the final ribosome particles. The highly conserved leader sequences of bacterial rRNAs are known to be important for the folding and assembly of functional ribosomes. Very likely transient binding of the leader to mature parts of the 16S RNA occurs during transcription. To better understand(More)
Escherichia coli 6S RNA represents a non-coding RNA (ncRNA), which, based on the conserved secondary structure and previous functional studies, had been suggested to interfere with transcription. Selective inhibition of sigma-70 holoenzymes, preferentially at extended -10 promoters, but not stationary-phase-specific transcription was described, suggesting a(More)
Hybrid promoter constructs were used to determine the DNA sequence requirements for stringent and growth rate control within a promoter region. The promoters were obtained by fusing complementing sequence regions located upstream and downstream from the GCGC discriminator motif of the growth rate regulated rRNA P1 promoter and a non-regulated tac promoter(More)
The ribosomal 5S RNA gene from the rrnB operon of E. coli was mutagenised in vitro using a synthetic oligonucleotide hybridised to M13 ssDNA containing that gene. The oligonucleotide corresponded to the 5S RNA sequence positions 34 to 51 and changed the guanosine at position 41 to a cytidine. The DNA containing the desired mutation was identified by dot(More)
We have investigated a series of mutations within a plasmid encoded E. coli ribosomal RNA leader region. The mutations are localized within a structure known as tL, which has been shown to mediate RNA polymerase pausing in vitro, and which is assumed to have a control function in rRNA transcription antitermination. The effects of the mutated plasmids were(More)
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