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The adaptation against foreign nucleic acids by the CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) depends on the insertion of foreign nucleic acid-derived sequences into the CRISPR array as novel spacers by still unknown mechanism. We identified and characterized in Escherichia coli intermediate(More)
BACKGROUND 6S RNA from E. coli is known to bind to RNA polymerase interfering with transcription initiation. Because 6S RNA concentrations are maximal at stationary phase and binding occurs preferentially to the holoenzyme associated with sigma(70) (Esigma(70)) it is believed that 6S RNA supports adjustment to stationary phase transcription. Previous(More)
The adaptive immunity of bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, mediated by CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), relies on the specific incorporation of short pieces of the invading foreign DNA into a special genomic locus, termed CRISPR array. The stored sequences (spacers) are subsequently used in the form of small RNAs(More)
Escherichia coli 6S RNA represents a non-coding RNA (ncRNA), which, based on the conserved secondary structure and previous functional studies, had been suggested to interfere with transcription. Selective inhibition of sigma-70 holoenzymes, preferentially at extended -10 promoters, but not stationary-phase-specific transcription was described, suggesting a(More)
BACKGROUND Among the seven different sigma factors in E. coli σ(70) has the highest concentration and affinity for the core RNA polymerase. The E. coli protein Rsd is regarded as an anti-sigma factor, inhibiting σ(70)-dependent transcription at the onset of stationary growth. Although binding of Rsd to σ(70) has been shown and numerous structural studies on(More)
We have investigated a series of mutations within a plasmid encoded E. coli ribosomal RNA leader region. The mutations are localized within a structure known as tL, which has been shown to mediate RNA polymerase pausing in vitro, and which is assumed to have a control function in rRNA transcription antitermination. The effects of the mutated plasmids were(More)
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