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BACKGROUND Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the human respiratory tract and causes pertussis or whooping cough. The disease has resurged in many countries including Finland where the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been used for more than 50 years. Antigenic divergence has been observed between vaccine strains and clinical(More)
Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained(More)
A number of sequential injection analysis (SIA) measurement methods have been developed during the last years. Almost all have been used in laboratory conditions with good results, but very few have been implemented as on-line methods, applied to non-stop measurements, producing immediate results for process control. The transfer of an SIA system from(More)
The three-dimensional structures of two immunosuppressants, cyclosporin A and macrolide FK506, were compared. The sites N-methylglycine3-N-methylleucine4 and valine5-N-methylleucine6 of cyclosporin A were found to be similar to each other (the root-mean-square value was 0.29 A for six reference points of the main chain) and also to the site C17-C22 of FK506(More)
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