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A unique data set of 50 years of monthly temperature profiles from Lake Zurich, a normally ice-free lake located on the Swiss Plateau, allowed the one-dimensional numerical k-␧ lake model ''SIMSTRAT'' to be calibrated (1948– 1957) and validated (1958–1997). Hindcasts of temperature profiles agree excellently with the measured data. Both interannual and(More)
Several studies have used the temperature dependence of gas solubilities in water to derive paleotemperatures from noble gases in groundwaters. We present a general method to infer environmental parameters from concentrations of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in water. Our approach incorporates statistical methods to quantify uncertainties of the deduced(More)
We present elemental and isotopic measurements of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe), oxygen and nitrogen of firn air from two sites. The first set of samples was taken in 1998 at the summit of the Devon Ice Cap in the eastern part of Devon Island. The second set was taken in 2001 at NGRIP location (North Greenland). He and Ne are heavily enriched(More)
The characteristic feature of the physical structure of Lac Pavin is a distinct and permanent chemically induced density increase between about 60 and 70 m depth. This chemocline separates the seasonally mixed mixolimnion from the monimolimnion, which is characterized by elevated temperature and salinity as well as complete anoxia. Previously published(More)
Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct paleotemperature, but also yield information about "excess air", a component of dissolved gases in excess of solubility equilibrium, derived from dissolution of trapped air in the ground. A good characterization of the excess air component is necessary not only to obtain reliable noble gas(More)
—The interpretation of noble gas concentrations in groundwater with respect to recharge temperature and fractionated excess gas leads to different results on paleo-climatic conditions and on residence times depending on the choice of the gas partitioning model. Two fractionation models for the gas excess are in use, one assuming partial re-equilibration of(More)
The concept of potential density, introduced by oceanographers to describe the vertical stability of a water column, may be inadequate if the water temperature is close to the temperature of maximum density, Tmd, where the thermal expansion coefficient changes its sign. Because r,, decreases with increasing pressure potential density especially fails to(More)
Deep-water renewal in Lake Baikal (Siberia), the world's deepest lake and largest lake by volume, is relatively fast. Water age calculated from tritium and helium as well as from chlorofluorocarbons does not exceed 19 yr. Relative saturation of dissolved oxygen typically exceeds 80%. The equation of state of Baikal water was determined including the(More)
From 2002 to 2010 inclusive we monitored concentrations of arsenic (As) and major ions (Ca, Mg, Sr, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO(4)) in groundwater from 14 domestic wells and three piezometer nests in a shallow aquifer (<60 m depth), and 3 wells in a deep aquifer (>70 m depth), in southern West Bengal, India. In the deep aquifer, concentrations of As did not(More)