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A model of the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is realized in the thermally stratified wind tunnel of the Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Karlsruhe. Further experimental results from this model are presented. The wind tunnel with a test section 10 m long, 1.5 m wide, and 1.5 m high allows one to generate a(More)
Drug resistance testing has been shown to be beneficial for clinical management of HIV type 1 infected patients. Whereas phenotypic assays directly measure drug resistance, the commonly used genotypic assays provide only indirect evidence of drug resistance, the major challenge being the interpretation of the sequence information. We analyzed the(More)
Therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies is limited by the development of drug resistant viruses. These genetic variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene, which codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the molecular targets of current antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic resistance testing depends on the ability to interpret such(More)
SUMMARY Mixture models of mutagenetic trees constitute a class of probabilistic models for describing evolutionary processes that are characterized by the accumulation of permanent genetic changes. They have been applied to model the accumulation of chromosomal gains and losses in tumor development and the development of drug resistance-associated mutations(More)
BACKGROUND Analysis of the viral genome for drug resistance mutations is state-of-the-art for guiding treatment selection for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. These mutations alter the structure of viral target proteins and reduce or in the worst case completely inhibit the effect of antiretroviral compounds while maintaining(More)
Effective control of HIV-1 infection in humans is achieved using combinations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. In humanized mice (hu-mice), control of viremia can be achieved using either ART or by immunotherapy using combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here we show that treatment of HIV-1-infected hu-mice with a combination of(More)
We introduce a mixture model of trees to describe evolutionary processes that are characterized by the accumulation of permanent genetic changes. The basic building block of the model is a directed weighted tree that generates a probability distribution on the set of all patterns of genetic events. We present an EM-like algorithm for learning a mixture(More)
The development of drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment of HIV infection. The extraordinary replication dynamics of HIV facilitates its escape from selective pressure exerted by the human immune system and by combination drug therapy. We have developed several computational methods whose combined use can support the design of optimal(More)