Rolf Grempler

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AIMS Empagliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study assessed pharmacological properties of empagliflozin in vitro and pharmacokinetic properties in vivo and compared its potency and selectivity with other SGLT-2 inhibitors. METHODS(More)
AIM Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) is key to reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. SGLT-2 inhibitors are in clinical development for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The mechanism may be of value also in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study investigated effects of the SGLT-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, alone and(More)
Empagliflozin is a potent, selective sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor that is in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This series of studies was conducted to assess the in vivo pharmacological effects of single or multiple doses of empagliflozin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Single doses of empagliflozin resulted in dose-dependent(More)
The key insulin-regulated gluconeogenic enzyme G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) has an important function in the control of hepatic glucose production. Here we examined the inhibition of G6Pase gene transcription by TNF (tumour necrosis factor) in H4IIE hepatoma cells. TNF decreased dexamethasone/dibtuyryl cAMP-induced G6Pase mRNA levels. TNFalpha, but not(More)
Glucose-6-phosphatase plays an important role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and insulin suppresses glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression. Recent studies indicate that protein kinase B and Forkhead proteins contribute to insulin-regulated gene expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of protein kinase B and Forkhead proteins in(More)
Sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT) actively catalyse carbohydrate transport across cellular membranes. Six of the 12 known SGLT family members have the capacity to bind and/or transport monosaccharides (SGLT-1 to 6); of these, all but SGLT-5 have been characterised. Here we demonstrate that human SGLT-5 is exclusively expressed in the kidney. Four splice(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR) paralogues alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and have oxysterols as endogenous ligands. LXR activation reduces hepatic glucose production in vivo through the inhibition of transcription of the key gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase(More)
The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce(More)
p8 is a widely expressed HMG-I/Y-like transcription factor which is involved in regulating cell proliferation and tissue stress. Several studies describe a strong upregulation of p8 expression during inflammatory processes like pancreatitis and LPS-induced sepsis. Here we demonstrate that TNFalpha, which is an important inducer of innate defence against(More)
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin. Recent data have established the lipid phosphatase SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) as a critical negative regulator of insulin signal transduction. Mutations in the SHIP2 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes. Here, we used hyperglycemic(More)