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Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we report on the direct observation of the energy gap in 2H-NbSe2 caused by the charge-density waves (CDW). The gap opens in the regions of the momentum space connected by the CDW vectors, which implies a nesting mechanism of CDW formation. In remarkable analogy with the pseudogap in cuprates, the detected(More)
X-ray imaging offers a new 3-D view into cells. With its ability to penetrate whole hydrated cells it is ideally suited for pairing fluorescence light microscopy and nanoscale X-ray tomography. In this paper, we describe the X-ray optical set-up and the design of the cryo full-field transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the electron storage ring BESSY II.(More)
Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we demonstrate that a normal-state pseudogap exists above T(N-IC) in one of the most studied two-dimensional charge-density wave (CDW) dichalcogenides 2H-TaSe(2). The initial formation of the incommensurate CDW is confirmed as being driven by a conventional nesting instability, which is marked by a pseudogap.(More)
The distribution of valence electrons in metals usually follows the symmetry of an ionic lattice. Modulations of this distribution often occur when those electrons are not stable with respect to a new electronic order, such as spin or charge density waves. Electron density waves have been observed in many families of superconductors[1, 2, 3], and are often(More)
We have studied the electronic structure of the nonmagnetic LiFeAs (T(c)∼18  K) superconductor using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find a notable absence of the Fermi surface nesting, strong renormalization of the conduction bands by a factor of 3, high density of states at the Fermi level caused by a van Hove singularity, and no evidence(More)
The occupation, energy separation, and order of the crystal-field-split 4f states are crucial for the understanding of the magnetic properties of rare-earth systems. We provide the experimental evidence that crystal-field-split 4f states exhibit energy dispersion in momentum space leading to variations of energy spacings between them and even of their(More)
The onset of superconductivity at the transition temperature is marked by the onset of order, which is characterized by an energy gap. Most models of the iron-based superconductors find a sign-changing (s±) order parameter [1-6], with the physical implication that pairing is driven by spin fluctuations. Recent work, however, has indicated that LiFeAs has a(More)
The full three-dimensional dispersion of the pi bands, Fermi velocities, and effective masses are measured with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and compared to first-principles calculations. The band structure by density-functional theory underestimates the slope of the bands and the trigonal warping effect. Including electron-electron correlation(More)
Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP) are to date very successful focusing optics for X-rays. Established methods of fabrication are rather complex and based on electron beam lithography (EBL). Here, we show that ion beam lithography (IBL) may advantageously simplify their preparation. A FZP operable from the extreme UV to the limit of the hard X-ray was prepared and(More)
Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-T_{c} superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong(More)