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Phylogenetic surveys of soil ecosystems have shown that the number of prokaryotic species found in a single sample exceeds that of known cultured prokaryotes. Soil metagenomics, which comprises isolation of soil DNA and the production and screening of clone libraries, can provide a cultivation-independent assessment of the largely untapped genetic reservoir(More)
The genome sequences of two Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains derived from two different patients of the 2011 German E. coli outbreak were determined. The two analyzed strains were designated E. coli GOS1 and GOS2 (German outbreak strain). Both isolates comprise one chromosome of approximately 5.31 Mbp and two putative plasmids. Comparisons of the 5,217(More)
BACKGROUND Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. (More)
Metagenomics has revolutionized microbiology by paving the way for a cultivation-independent assessment and exploitation of microbial communities present in complex ecosystems. Metagenomics comprising construction and screening of metagenomic DNA libraries has proven to be a powerful tool to isolate new enzymes and drugs of industrial importance. So far,(More)
Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for(More)
Metagenomics has paved the way for cultivation-independent assessment and exploitation of microbial communities present in complex ecosystems. In recent years, significant progress has been made in this research area. A major breakthrough was the improvement and development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. The application of these(More)
Glycerol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.6) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (EC 2.7.1.29) were purified from Citrobacter freundii. The dehydrogenase is a hexamer of a polypeptide of 43,000 Da. The enzyme exhibited a rather broad substrate specificity, but glycerol was the preferred substrate in the physiological direction. The apparent Kms of the enzyme for glycerol(More)
Synthesis of acetate from carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen is considered to be the first carbon assimilation pathway on earth. It combines carbon dioxide fixation into acetyl-CoA with the production of ATP via an energized cell membrane. How the pathway is coupled with the net synthesis of ATP has been an enigma. The anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium(More)
Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, a member of the abundant marine Roseobacter clade, is known to be an effective colonizer of biotic and abiotic marine surfaces. Production of the antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA) makes P. gallaeciensis a strong antagonist of many bacteria, including fish and mollusc pathogens. In addition to TDA, several other secondary(More)
Many strains of Thermus have been isolated from hot environments around the world. Thermus scotoductus SA-01 was isolated from fissure water collected 3.2 km below surface in a South African gold mine. The isolate is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, growth with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors and the ability to reduce a variety of(More)