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Phylogenetic surveys of soil ecosystems have shown that the number of prokaryotic species found in a single sample exceeds that of known cultured prokaryotes. Soil metagenomics, which comprises isolation of soil DNA and the production and screening of clone libraries, can provide a cultivation-independent assessment of the largely untapped genetic reservoir(More)
Glycerol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.6) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (EC 2.7.1.29) were purified from Citrobacter freundii. The dehydrogenase is a hexamer of a polypeptide of 43,000 Da. The enzyme exhibited a rather broad substrate specificity, but glycerol was the preferred substrate in the physiological direction. The apparent Kms of the enzyme for glycerol(More)
Metagenomics has paved the way for cultivation-independent assessment and exploitation of microbial communities present in complex ecosystems. In recent years, significant progress has been made in this research area. A major breakthrough was the improvement and development of high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. The application of these(More)
Microbial metagenomes derived from soils are rich sources for the discovery of novel genes and biocatalysts. Fourteen environmental plasmid and seven fosmid libraries obtained from 10 German forest soils (A horizons) and six grassland soils (A and B horizons) were screened for genes conferring lipolytic activity. The libraries comprised approximately 29.3(More)
The genome sequences of two Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains derived from two different patients of the 2011 German E. coli outbreak were determined. The two analyzed strains were designated E. coli GOS1 and GOS2 (German outbreak strain). Both isolates comprise one chromosome of approximately 5.31 Mbp and two putative plasmids. Comparisons of the 5,217(More)
When grown on glycerol as sole carbon and energy source, cell extracts of Clostridium pasteurianum exhibited activities of glycerol dehydrogenase, dihydroxyacetone kinase, glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase. The genes encoding the latter two enzymes were cloned by colony hybridization using the dhaT gene of Citrobacter freundii as a(More)
The coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii is subject to suicide inactivation by the natural substrate glycerol during catalysis. We identified dhaF and dhaG as the genes responsible for reactivation of inactivated dehydratase. Northern blot analyses revealed that both genes were expressed during glycerol fermentation. The dhaF(More)
Small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries were constructed from glacial ice of the Northern Schneeferner, which is located on the Zugspitzplatt in Germany. Subsequently, these libraries were screened for the presence of DNA polymerase-encoding genes by complementation of an Escherichia coli polA mutant. Nine novel genes encoding complete DNA(More)
The enteric bacterium Escherichia blattae has been analyzed for the presence of cobalamin (B12) biosynthesis and B12-dependent pathways. Biochemical studies revealed that E. blattae synthesizes B12 de novo aerobically and anaerobically. Genes exhibiting high similarity to all genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which are involved in the(More)
BACKGROUND Roseobacter litoralis OCh149, the type species of the genus, and Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114 were the first described organisms of the Roseobacter clade, an ecologically important group of marine bacteria. Both species were isolated from seaweed and are able to perform aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. RESULTS The genome of R. litoralis(More)