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Tet proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine (mC) to generate 5-hydroxymethyl (hmC), 5-formyl (fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC). The exact function of these oxidative cytosine bases remains elusive. We applied quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics to identify readers for mC and hmC in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC), neuronal progenitor cells (NPC),(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of the glucocorticoid receptor has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry. The structure of a 71-residue protein fragment containing two "zinc finger" domains is based on a large set of proton-proton distances derived from nuclear Overhauser enhancement(More)
Interaction of regulatory DNA binding proteins with their target sites is usually preceded by binding to nonspecific DNA. This speeds up the search for the target site by several orders of magnitude. We report the solution structure and dynamics of the complex of a dimeric lac repressor DNA binding domain with nonspecific DNA. The same set of residues can(More)
Protein folding in the cell relies on the orchestrated action of conserved families of molecular chaperones, the Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems. Hsp70 acts early and Hsp90 late in the folding path, yet the molecular basis of this timing is enigmatic, mainly because the substrate specificity of Hsp90 is poorly understood. Here, we obtained a structural model of(More)
With the amount of genetic information available, a lot of attention has focused on systems biology, in particular biomolecular interactions. Considering the huge number of such interactions, and their often weak and transient nature, conventional experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are not sufficient to gain structural(More)
Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrates is crucial to protein degradation, transcription regulation and cell signalling. Highly specific interactions between ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and ubiquitin protein E3 ligases fulfil essential roles in this process. We performed a global yeast-two hybrid screen to study the specificity of interactions(More)
The WeNMR ( http://www.wenmr.eu ) project is a European Union funded international effort to streamline and automate analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Small Angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS) imaging data for atomic and near-atomic resolution molecular structures. Conventional calculation of structure requires the use of various software packages,(More)
Two previously isolated mutations in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain (DBD), S459A and P493R, have been postulated to mimic DNA-induced conformational changes in the glucocorticoid receptor DBD, thereby constitutively triggering an allosteric mechanism in which binding of specific DNA normally induces the exposure of otherwise silent(More)
The transcription factor Oct-1 belongs to a family containing a POU DNA-binding domain. This bipartite domain is composed of a POU-specific domain (POUs) and a POU-homeodomain (POUhd) connected by a flexible linker. The left half of the optimal POU binding site, the octamer ATGCAAAT, is recognized by POUs and the right half by POUhd. We have determined the(More)
The parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1 encodes a toxin-antitoxin system, which is involved in plasmid stabilization. The toxin Kid inhibits cell growth by RNA degradation and its action is neutralized by the formation of a tight complex with the antitoxin Kis. A fascinating but poorly understood aspect of the kid-kis system is its autoregulation at(More)