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Incubation of endothelial cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose activates protein kinase C (PKC) and increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS III) gene expression as well as superoxide production. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this issue in an in vivo model, diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in rats. Streptozotocin(More)
The aim of this study was to describe the neurological syndrome in the largest cohort of adult patients with a complicated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. The recent outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotype O104:H4 in northern Germany affected more than 3842 patients, 22% of whom developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The(More)
The chemokine receptor CCR5 is predominantly expressed on monocytes and Th1-polarized T cells, and plays an important role in T cell and monocyte recruitment in inflammatory diseases. To investigate the functional role of CCR5 in renal inflammation, we induced a T cell-dependent model of glomerulonephritis (nephrotoxic serum nephritis) in CCR5(-/-) mice.(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates synthesis of type IV collagen in a cultured murine proximal tubular cell line (MCT cells). In addition, Ang II also induces the expression of TGF-beta1 in these cells. Since TGF-beta has well-known stimulatory effects on the transcription of various collagens, we tested whether the Ang-II-mediated stimulation of(More)
Gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase-2) plays a prominent role in multiple biologic processes. Prior studies have established critical roles for gelatinase A transcriptional regulation by defined enhancer elements. To determine possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within these elements, we determined the single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang-II) is associated with atherogenesis and arterial subendothelial mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. We have demonstrated that Ang-II causes the initial attachment of mononuclear cells to the arteriolar endothelium. We now report on the contribution of CC chemokines to this response. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 nM Ang-II induced(More)
The recruitment of inflammatory cells into renal tissue, mainly T cells and monocytes, is a typical feature of various renal diseases such as glomerulonephritis, thrombotic angiopathies, allograft rejection, and vasculitis. T cells predominantly infiltrate the tubulointerstitium, whereas monocytes are present in the tubulointerstitial and glomerular(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II stimulates expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in cultured renal cells. To investigate whether similar mechanisms are operative in vivo, glomerular TGF-beta mRNA expression was investigated in two-kidney, one-clip (2-K 1-C) hypertensive rats. Glomerular TGF-beta1 transcripts were(More)
The pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 [chemokine (Cys-Cys motif) ligand 2; also known as MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1)] is up-regulated in the glomerular compartment during the early phase of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced nephritis. This up-regulation also occurs in cultured MCs (mesangial cells) and is more pronounced in MCs lacking the PGE2(More)