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Incubation of endothelial cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose activates protein kinase C (PKC) and increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS III) gene expression as well as superoxide production. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this issue in an in vivo model, diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in rats. Streptozotocin(More)
Disturbances in recognizing facial expressions of disgust have been reported previously in pre-symptomatic and manifest Huntington's disease. Given the substantial role of the insula and basal ganglia in the perception of disgust as revealed by functional imaging, lesion studies and intracerebral recordings, we propose dysfunction within the insula and/or(More)
The aim of this study was to describe the neurological syndrome in the largest cohort of adult patients with a complicated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. The recent outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotype O104:H4 in northern Germany affected more than 3842 patients, 22% of whom developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces hypertrophy of cultured proximal tubular cells. We have previously demonstrated that this Ang II-mediated hypertrophy occurs in the G1-phase of the cell cycle and depends on the induction of p27Kip1, an inhibitor of G1-phase cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate(More)
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, with an uncertain clinical outcome. The characterization of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as the major target antigen in primary MN and the detection of circulating autoantibodies in these patients is a major advance in understanding this disease. To test whether(More)
BACKGROUND Intrarenal B cell clusters are associated with poor clinical outcome in acute interstitial rejection. The incidence of B cell aggregates in vascular rejection and the effect of therapy with the monoclonal CD20 antibody rituximab on intrarenal B cells are currently unclear. METHODS We analyzed the incidence of B cell clusters in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously shown that renovascular hypertension does not inhibit healing of the acute Thy-1 nephritis. To test whether a chronic model of the Thy-1 nephritis is more susceptible to high blood pressure, the repetitive hit model was evaluated in rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertension. METHODS Six weeks after initiation of(More)
BACKGROUND The recent finding that phospholipase-A(2)-receptor antibodies (PLA(2)R-AB) may play a role in the development of primary membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) offers the opportunity to measure a marker to help diagnose, classify and eventually monitor the course of patients with MGN. METHODS We developed an immunofluorescence test, which allows(More)
The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is the major target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy with detectable autoantibodies in the serum of up to 70% of patients. In retrospective studies, the PLA2R-autoantibody titer in the serum was sometimes negative indicating their measurement alone may be inconclusive. In order to better differentiate(More)
BACKGROUND High glucose up-regulates the mesangial cell expression of p27(Kip1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases/cyclin complexes. Previous in vitro studies using cultured mesangial cells from p27(Kip1-/-) mice demonstrated that these cells do not undergo high glucose-mediated cellular hypertrophy. Since glomerular hypertrophy is an early feature(More)