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Light can elicit acute physiological and alerting responses in humans, the magnitude of which depends on the timing, intensity, and duration of light exposure. Here, we report that the alerting response of light as well as its effects on thermoregulation and heart rate are also wavelength dependent. Exposure to 2 h of monochromatic light at 460 nm in the(More)
BACKGROUND Light exposure can cascade numerous effects on the human circadian process via the non-imaging forming system, whose spectral relevance is highest in the short-wavelength range. Here we investigated if commercially available compact fluorescent lamps with different colour temperatures can impact on alertness and cognitive performance. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE Adolescents prefer sleep and wake times that are considerably delayed compared with younger children or adults. Concomitantly, multimedia use in the evening is prevalent among teenagers and involves light exposure, particularly in the blue-wavelength range to which the biological clock and its associated arousal promotion system is the most(More)
Light in the short wavelength range (blue light: 446-483 nm) elicits direct effects on human melatonin secretion, alertness and cognitive performance via non-image-forming photoreceptors. However, the impact of blue-enriched polychromatic light on human sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalographic activity remains fairly unknown. In this study we(More)
Light strongly influences the circadian timing system in humans via non-image-forming photoreceptors in the retinal ganglion cells. Their spectral sensitivity is highest in the short-wavelength range of the visible light spectrum as demonstrated by melatonin suppression, circadian phase shifting, acute physiological responses, and subjective alertness. We(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the healing response of the human cornea after photoablation with a midinfrared solid-state laser was more pronounced than after excimer laser keratectomies because of the increased thermal damage in adjacent tissue. METHODS We treated five blind human eyes with an erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser prototype and followed up the(More)
Recently, we showed that for traditional bidirec-tional search with "front-to-end" evaluations, it is not the meeting of search fronts but the cost of proving the optimality of a solution that is problematic. Using our improved understanding of the problem, we developed a new approach to improving this kind of search: switching to unidirectional search(More)
The effect of helium on the tungsten microstructure was investigated first by exposure to a radio frequency driven helium plasma with fluxes of the order of 1 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) and second by helium incorporation via magnetron sputtering. Roughening of the surface and the creation of pinholes were observed when exposing poly- and nanocrystalline tungsten(More)
Reported interstitial pressures range from -8 to +6 mm Hg in different tissues and from <-20 mm Hg in burned tissue or more than +30 mm Hg in tumors. We have tried to link interstitial pressure to the here proposed cyclical changes in the fluid transport across the capillary wall. In the presented model interstitial pressure is considered as an average of(More)