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Cell-type plasticity within a tumor has recently been suggested to cause a bidirectional conversion between tumor-initiating stem cells and nonstem cells triggered by an inflammatory stroma. NF-κB represents a key transcription factor within the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, NF-κB's function in tumor-initiating cells has not been examined(More)
Owing to the lack of randomised controlled trials no standard of chemotherapy exists in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinoma. 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine is recommended based on small and predominately phase II trials. The aim of this analysis was to analyse existing trials, even small and nonrandomised, and identify superior regimens.(More)
Physiological levels of Kras(G12D) are sufficient to induce pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs); the mechanisms that drive PanIN progression are unknown. Here, we establish that, in addition to oncogenic Kras(G12D), IL-6 transsignaling-dependent activation of Stat3/Socs3 is required to promote PanIN progression and pancreatic ductal(More)
Microglial activation is a prominent feature of affected brain areas in multiple system atrophy. Microglia express proinflammatory peptides, which may be a result of activation of nuclear factor-KB. We investigated the nuclear presence of RelA, the 65 kDa subunit of the NF-KB/RelA family in striatum and brain stem of patients with multiple system atrophy.(More)
In the presence of urea the neutrophilic human pathogen Helicobacter pylori survives for several hours at pH 1 with concomitant cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. To study this effect in detail, the transmembrane proton motive force and cytoplasmic urease activity of H. pylori were determined at various pH values. In the absence of urea, the organism maintained a(More)
BACKGROUND The Ras and Notch signaling pathways are frequently activated during development to control many diverse cellular processes and are often dysregulated during tumorigenesis. To study the role of Notch and oncogenic Kras signaling in a progenitor cell population, Pdx1-Cre mice were utilized to generate conditional oncogenic Kras(G12D) mice with(More)
INTRODUCTION A hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumor of the liver composed of a mixture of smooth muscle cells, blood vessels and a variable amount of adipose tissue. Differentiating them from malignant liver tumors can often be very difficult. CASE PRESENTATION We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man presenting with a large liver mass(More)
IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation plays a key role in innate immunity and inflammation, and inhibition of IKKbeta has been considered as a likely anti-inflammatory therapy. Surprisingly, however, mice with a targeted IKKbeta deletion in myeloid cells are more susceptible to endotoxin-induced shock than control mice. Increased endotoxin susceptibility(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is well known for its antiapoptotic action. However, in some disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, a proapoptotic function of NF-kappaB has been demonstrated. To analyze which subunit of NF-kappaB is functional in cerebral ischemia, we induced focal cerebral ischemia in mice with a germline deletion(More)