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Ever since Pliny the Elder coined the term tinnitus, the perception of sound in the absence of an external sound source has remained enigmatic. Traditional theories assume that tinnitus is triggered by cochlear damage, but many tinnitus patients present with a normal audiogram, i.e., with no direct signs of cochlear damage. Here, we report that in human(More)
Chronic tinnitus is often accompanied by a hearing impairment, but it is still unknown whether hearing loss can actually cause tinnitus. The association between the pitch of the tinnitus sensation and the audiogram edge in patients with high-frequency hearing loss suggests a functional relation, but a large fraction of patients with hearing loss does not(More)
Tinnitus, a phantom auditory sensation, is associated with hearing loss in most cases, but it is unclear if hearing loss causes tinnitus. Phantom auditory sensations can be induced in normal hearing listeners when they experience severe auditory deprivation such as confinement in an anechoic chamber, which can be regarded as somewhat analogous to a profound(More)
Tinnitus, the perception of a sound in the absence of acoustic stimulation, is often associated with hearing loss. Animal studies indicate that hearing loss through cochlear damage can lead to behavioral signs of tinnitus that are correlated with pathologically increased spontaneous firing rates, or hyperactivity, of neurons in the auditory pathway.(More)
Acoustic stimulation with hearing aids or noise devices is frequently used in tinnitus therapy. However, such behind-the-ear devices are limited in their high-frequency output with an upper cut-off frequency of approximately 5-6 kHz. Theoretical modeling suggests that acoustic stimulation treatments with these devices might be most effective when the(More)
Tinnitus is often related to hearing loss, but how hearing loss could lead to tinnitus has remained unclear. Animal studies show that the occurrence of tinnitus is correlated to increased spontaneous firing rates of central auditory neurons, but mechanisms that give rise to such hyperactivity have not been identified yet. Here we present a computational(More)
Reliable accounts of the variability observed in neural spike trains are a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of neural dynamics and coding principles. Models that accurately describe neural variability over a wide range of stimulation and response patterns are therefore highly desirable, especially if they can explain this variability in terms of(More)
The understanding of tinnitus has progressed considerably in the past decade, but the details of the mechanisms that give rise to this phantom perception of sound without a corresponding acoustic stimulus have not yet been pinpointed. It is now clear that tinnitus is generated in the brain, not in the ear, and that it is correlated with pathologically(More)
Glial cell processes are part of the synaptic structure and sense spillover of transmitter, while some glial cells can even receive direct synaptic input. Here, we report that a defined type of glial cell in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receives excitatory glutamatergic synaptic input from the calyx of Held (CoH). This giant glutamatergic(More)
Cochlear damage can change the spontaneous firing rates of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Increased spontaneous firing rates (hyperactivity) after acoustic trauma have been observed in the DCN of rodents such as hamsters, chinchillas and rats. This hyperactivity has been interpreted as a neural correlate of tinnitus. In cats, however, the(More)