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Primary olfactory neuronal cultures exposed to odorant stimulation have previously exhibited concentration-related effects in terms of intracellular cAMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity [Ronnett, G.V., Parfitt, D.J., Hester, L.D. & Snyder, S.H. (1991) PNAS88, 2366-2369]. Maximal stimulation occurred for intermediate concentrations, whereas AC activity(More)
In mammals, the olfactory sensory neurons are the only ones directly in contact with an aggressive environment. Thus, the olfactory mucosa is one of the few neuronal zones which are continuously renewed during adulthood. We have previously shown that endothelin is locally matured in the olfactory mucosa and that olfactory sensory neurons preferentially(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that regulates body weight mainly via the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb). Leptin and its receptors are expressed in several tissues, suggesting that leptin might also be effective peripherally. We hypothesized that, as shown in taste cells, leptin and its receptors isoforms (Ob-Rs) could be present in the(More)
Orexin-A and -B, also known as hypocretins, are two neuropeptides acting on feeding and sleep. They are specific ligands for two different receptors belonging to the G-protein coupled receptors family. Orexin fibers and orexin receptor neurons have been previously described in the forebrain olfactory system. Using immunocytochemistry, we showed that both(More)
Orexin A and B are involved in feeding behaviors, and recently fibers containing these peptides were found in the rat olfactory bulb. These fibers, which originate from the lateral and posterior hypothalamus and the perifornical area, are distributed in the glomerular, mitral cell, and granule cell layers. Orexin receptors are mainly expressed by mitral(More)
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is composed of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and sustentacular cells; it lies in the nasal cavity where it is protected by a thin mucus layer. The finely regulated composition of this mucus provides OSN with a suitable ionic environment. To maintain the functional integrity of the epithelium despite permanent physical,(More)
Orexins A and B (OxA and OxB) are multifunctional neuropeptides implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism, wakefulness but also in a broad range of motivated behaviours. They signal through two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 and 2 (Ox1R and Ox2R). The orexins and their receptors are present at all levels of the rat olfactory system:(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to(More)
The olfactory system is regulated by several nervous and hormonal factors, and there is a growing body of evidence that some of these modulations already take place in the olfactory mucosa (OM). We recently suggested that, among others, vasoactive peptides might play multifaceted roles in different OM cells. Here we studied the effect of the(More)
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