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To be successful, precision manipulation of small objects requires a refined coordination of forces excerted on the object by the tips of the fingers and thumb. The present paper deals quantitatively with the regulation of the coordination between the grip force and the vertical lifting force, denoted as the load force, while small objects were lifted,(More)
Small objects were lifted from a table, held in the air, and replaced using the precision grip between the index finger and thumb. The adaptation of motor commands to variations in the object's weight and sensori-motor mechanisms responsible for optimum performance of the transition between the various phases of the task were examined. The lifting movement(More)
We analyzed the coordination between gaze behavior, fingertip movements, and movements of the manipulated object when subjects reached for and grasped a bar and moved it to press a target-switch. Subjects almost exclusively fixated certain landmarks critical for the control of the task. Landmarks at which contact events took place were obligatory gaze(More)
1. Single unit impulses were recorded with percutaneously inserted tungsten needle electrodes from the median nerve in conscious human subjects. 2. A sample of 334 low threshold mechanoreceptive units innervating the glabrous skin area of the hand were studied. In accordance with earlier investigations, the units were separated into four groups on the basis(More)
It is generally assumed that primary sensory neurons transmit information by their firing rates. However, during natural object manipulations, tactile information from the fingertips is used faster than can be readily explained by rate codes. Here we show that the relative timing of the first impulses elicited in individual units of ensembles of afferents(More)
Most manual grips can be divided in precision and power grips on the basis of phylogenetic and functional considerations. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare human brain activity during force production by the right hand when subjects used a precision grip and a power grip. During the precision-grip task, subjects applied fine grip(More)
A small object was gripped between the tips of the index finger and thumb and held stationary in space. Its weight and surface structure could be changed between consecutive lifting trials, without changing its visual appearance. The grip force and the vertical lifting force acting on the object, as well as the vertical position of the object were(More)
During object manipulation tasks, the brain selects and implements action-phase controllers that use sensory predictions and afferent signals to tailor motor output to the physical properties of the objects involved. Analysis of signals in tactile afferent neurons and central processes in humans reveals how contact events are encoded and used to monitor and(More)
A test object (grip apparatus) was held at its upper part using a precision grip. Small balls were dropped into a target cup at the bottom of the apparatus. The grip force, the load force (vertical lifting force) and the vertical movement were measured. Electromyographic activity (e.m.g.) was recorded from four antagonist pairs of hand/arm muscles primarily(More)