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The increasing number of spoken dialog systems calls for efficient approaches for their development and testing. Our goal is the minimization of hand-crafted resources to maximize the portability of this evaluation environment across spoken dialog systems and domains. In this paper we discuss the user simulation technique which allows us to learn general(More)
Distant supervision is a useful technique for creating relation classifiers in the absence of labelled data. The approaches are often evaluated using a held-out portion of the distantly labelled data, thereby avoiding the need for lablelled data entirely. However, held-out evaluation means that systems are tested against noisy data, making it difficult to(More)
Distant supervision is a widely applied approach to automatic training of relation extraction systems and has the advantage that it can generate large amounts of labelled data with minimal effort. However , this data may contain errors and consequently systems trained using distant supervision tend not to perform as well as those based on manually labelled(More)
This paper presents a system for the nor-malization of concept mentions in clinical narratives. We evaluate and compare it against a popular, open-source solution that is frequently used for natural language processing of clinical text. The evaluation is based on a manually annotated dataset of 72 discharge summaries taken from the i2b2-corpus. Besides the(More)
Automatic recognition of relationships between key entities in text is an important problem which has many applications. Supervised machine learning techniques have proved to be the most effective approach to this problem. However, they require labelled training data which may not be available in sufficient quantity (or at all) and is expensive to produce.(More)