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The topographical relations of the human maxillary artery (IM) in the infratemporal fossa were studied in 102 individuals of both sexes. In the majority of the cases (55.4%), the artery was found in a lateral position to the lower head of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPTER). In most of these specimens, the IM ran also lateral to the inferior alveolar,(More)
Carbocyanines (DiI, DiA, DiO) are able to travel along membranes by diffusion and therefore have been used as postmortem neuronal tracers in aldehyde-fixed tissues. Surprisingly, detailed data on the influence of different parameters on tracing distances are still missing. This study was carried out to optimize tracing procedures and to reveal the validity(More)
PURPOSE To analyze palisade endings and their end organs, the so-called innervated myotendinous cylinders (IMCs), of human extraocular muscle (EOM) in more detail and to clarify with the help of double-fluorescent labeling and electron microscopy whether terminals in IMCs are sensory, serving proprioception. METHODS EOMs obtained from a donated cadaver(More)
Rat extraocular muscles are composed of two layers differing in muscle fibre diameter. In both layers multiply innervated fibres are found besides focally innervated ones. Significant differences in internal structure thus demand further subtyping. The global layer (predominantly larger fibres) contains 10" 'clear' fibres (multiple innervation, medium size)(More)
Innervated myotendinous cylinders (IMCs) were for the first time described in a sheep extraocular muscle (EOMs). They were found at the distal myotendinous junction of a medial rectus and were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IMCs are enveloped by a multi-layered capsule of fibrocytes and each contains the terminal portion of(More)
BACKGROUND This study was performed to reinvestigate the detailed anatomy of the connective tissues related to the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty human orbits were prepared macroscopically or with the help of an operational microscope. Connective tissues related to the LPS were measured, removed, and(More)
The electronmicroscopically conspicuous "neurofilaments" in axons manifest a marked constancy of mutual distance at all levels of a nerve fiber regardless of the wide variation of cross-sectional area along the course of a single axon or between different axons. The filaments conform to the rheological flow patterns of the axonal flow and must be viewed as(More)