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BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is a widespread disease of the skeleton that becomes more common with advancing age. Its prevalence is still inadequately documented. The goal of this study is to determine how common osteoporosis is in Germany. METHODS The routine billing data of a large statutory health insurance carrier in Germany (the TK company) from the years(More)
MOTIVATION Human decisions often proceed in two steps. Initially those most preferred are chosen followed by a subsequent choice of these preferences. Applying one artificial neural network (ANN), a classification is limited to the preselection process. The final categorization is only possible by a subsequent ANN that distinguishes the pre-chosen classes.(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to investigate the epidemiology of autoimmune Addison's disease (AD) in Germany. DESIGN Routine data were analyzed from the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) database of the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK) for an observation period from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2012. The TK is one of the largest German health care insurance providers(More)
BACKGROUND Society benefits on a large scale from improved medical care and pharmaceuticals. The prescription of pharmaceuticals, however, also carries risks such as the possibility of an increased hazard of falls, which may lead to severe injuries and increased health expenditures associated with these injuries. This study investigates the relationship of(More)
AIMS Based on an analysis of claims-based data of 8.298 million members of two German statutory health insurance funds, the aim of this contribution is to quantify age-/gender-specific prevalence/incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a German setting. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients were classified as AF prevalent, if they had received at least two(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioural disorders among children and adolescents. The number of patients as well as prescriptions to treat this disease has continuously increased over the past few years. The aim of the present study was to analyse the costs for treating ADHD patients from the perspective of a(More)
BACKGROUND In view of the well-known increase in prescriptions of stimulants for children and adolescents over the last 20 years, it is important to study trends in the prevalence and incidence of the use of other psychotropic drugs by this age group as well, to enable an early response to potential problems in the current care situation. METHODS We used(More)
With the steadily growing health burden of obesity in Germany, the measuring and quantification of its costs and relevant economic consequences have become increasingly important. The usual quantifications via previous cost-of-illness approaches mostly have several weaknesses, e.g., applying “indirect methods” by using “population-attributable fractions” to(More)
The cdknlA gene encodes CDKN1A, a protein that regulates cell cycle progression, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Polymorphisms or loss of heterozygosity of this usually biallelically expressed gene have no major impact on carcinogenesis. The prevalence of somatic mutations in malignancies is low. Gene rearrangements involving cdknlA are scarce.(More)