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Hailstorms occur frequently in metropolitan Syd-ney, in the eastern Australian State of New South Wales, which is especially vulnerable due to its building exposure and geographical location. Hailstorms challenge disaster response agencies and pose a great risk for insurance companies. This study focuses on the Sydney hailstorm of 14 April 1999 –(More)
The ESA GLOBCARBON project aims to generate fully calibrated estimates of at-land products quasi-independent of the original Earth Observation source for use in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, a central component of the IGBP-IHDP-WCRP Global Carbon Cycle Joint Project. The service features global estimates of: burned area, f APAR , LAI and vegetation(More)
The development of a new concurrent multiaxis (CMAX) sky viewing spectrometer to monitor rapidly changing urban concentrations of nitrogen dioxide is detailed. The CMAX differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique involves simultaneous spectral imaging of the zenith and off-axis measurements of spatially resolved scattered sunlight.(More)
Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in carbon fluxes is essential to constrain models that predict climate change. However, our current knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns is uncertain, particularly over land. The European Space Agency (ESA) GLOBCARBON project was initiated to generate fully calibrated estimates of at-land products(More)
A novel system using the technique of concurrent multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy system has been developed and applied to the measurement of nitrogen dioxide in an urban environment. Using five fixed telescopes, slant columns of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, water vapour, and the oxygen dimer, O 4 , are simultaneously retrieved in five(More)
Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation(More)
BACKGROUND Observational evidence suggests there is an association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes; however, there is high risk of bias. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes, while reducing bias due to exposure assessment, outcome assessment, and confounder assessment. METHODS Data were collected(More)
Reliable reference profiles and variability estimates are a necessity for a variety of processes relating to ENVISAT including the development of key aspects of the MIPAS/ENVISAT operational processor. In relation to MIPAS, these profiles are employed as inputs to microwindow selection and occupation matrices (MW/OM). They are also used to calculate forward(More)
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background An efficient road traffic system is of high importance to our society. Many local authorities face a challenging situation with a steady increase in road traffic, leading to congestion and longer travel times. This is despite measures to reduce congestion, e.g. by improving the traffic control, implementing road tax systems,(More)
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