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The action of type I interferons in the central nervous system (CNS) during autoimmunity is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate elevated interferon beta concentrations in the CNS, but not blood, of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for CNS autoimmunity. Furthermore, mice devoid of the broadly expressed type I IFN receptor(More)
Blood of both humans and mice contains 2 main monocyte subsets. Here, we investigated the extent of their similarity using a microarray approach. Approximately 270 genes in humans and 550 genes in mice were differentially expressed between subsets by 2-fold or more. More than 130 of these gene expression differences were conserved between mouse and human(More)
The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. In this study, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein FcRgamma(More)
Cell-type plasticity within a tumor has recently been suggested to cause a bidirectional conversion between tumor-initiating stem cells and nonstem cells triggered by an inflammatory stroma. NF-κB represents a key transcription factor within the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, NF-κB's function in tumor-initiating cells has not been examined(More)
Galanin was first identified 30 years ago as a "classic neuropeptide," with actions primarily as a modulator of neurotransmission in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Other structurally-related peptides-galanin-like peptide and alarin-with diverse biologic actions in brain and other tissues have since been identified, although, unlike galanin, their(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. SOCS3 is upregulated by several signals in macrophages and has been implicated as a regulator of various signaling pathways. Here we show that phosphorylation of STAT3 is prolonged(More)
The galanin peptide family consists of the "parental" galanin, galanin-message-associated peptide (GMAP) which derives from the same peptide precursor gene product as galanin, galanin-like peptide (GALP) encoded by a different gene, and the recently discovered peptide alarin which is encoded by a splice variant of the GALP gene. The galanin receptor family(More)
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade after Toll-like receptor stimulation enables innate immune cells to rapidly activate cytokine gene expression. A balanced response to signals of infectious danger requires that cellular activation is transient. Here, we identify the MAPK phosphatase dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) as(More)
Classical twin studies and recent linkage analyses of African populations have revealed a potential involvement of host genetic factors in susceptibility or resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In order to identify the candidate genes involved and test their causal implication, we capitalized on the mouse model of tuberculosis, since inbred(More)
IL-10 regulates inflammation by reducing cytokine and chemokine production from activated macrophages. We performed microarray experiments to identify possible effector molecules of IL-10 and to investigate the global effect of IL-10 on the transcriptional response induced in LPS-activated macrophages. To exclude background effects of endogenous IL-10,(More)