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The crucial role of the thymus in immunological tolerance has been demonstrated by establishing that T cells are positively selected to express a specificity for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and that those T cells bearing receptors potentially reactive to self antigen fragments, presumably presented by thymic MHC, are selected against. The(More)
Cell-type plasticity within a tumor has recently been suggested to cause a bidirectional conversion between tumor-initiating stem cells and nonstem cells triggered by an inflammatory stroma. NF-κB represents a key transcription factor within the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, NF-κB's function in tumor-initiating cells has not been examined(More)
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade after Toll-like receptor stimulation enables innate immune cells to rapidly activate cytokine gene expression. A balanced response to signals of infectious danger requires that cellular activation is transient. Here, we identify the MAPK phosphatase dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) as(More)
IL-10 regulates inflammation by reducing cytokine and chemokine production from activated macrophages. We performed microarray experiments to identify possible effector molecules of IL-10 and to investigate the global effect of IL-10 on the transcriptional response induced in LPS-activated macrophages. To exclude background effects of endogenous IL-10,(More)
Novel vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are urgently needed. The use of recombinant MTB antigens as subunit vaccines is a promising approach, but requires adjuvants that activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for elicitation of protective immunity. The mycobacterial cord factor Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic(More)
Project ARS (artificial recognition system) researches the future possibilities for building automation using bionic approaches. It focuses on the combination of bottom-up data processing systems with decision making inspired by modern psychoanalysis. We define a model based on a symbol processing unit and a decision unit implementing Sigmund Freud's(More)
Recognition of microbial danger signals by toll-like receptors (TLR) causes re-programming of macrophages. To investigate kinase cascades triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on systems level, we performed a global, quantitative and kinetic analysis of the phosphoproteome of primary macrophages using stable isotope labelling with amino(More)
In today's technical world (e.g., in the automotive industry), more and more purely mechanical components get replaced by electro-mechanical ones. Thus the size and complexity of embedded systems steadily increases. To cope with this development, comfortable software engineering tools are being developed that allow a more functionality-oriented development(More)
BACKGROUND It is now emerging that for vaccines against a range of diseases including influenza, malaria and HIV, the induction of a humoral response is insufficient and a substantial complementary cell-mediated immune response is necessary for adequate protection. Furthermore, for some diseases such as tuberculosis, a cellular response seems to be the sole(More)
Parasitic worms alter their host's immune system to diminish the inflammatory responses directed against them, using very efficient immunomodulating molecules. We have previously shown that the helminth immunomodulator cystatin (AvCystatin) profoundly reduces the progression of inflammatory diseases via modulation of macrophages. Here we elucidate the(More)