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The crucial role of the thymus in immunological tolerance has been demonstrated by establishing that T cells are positively selected to express a specificity for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and that those T cells bearing receptors potentially reactive to self antigen fragments, presumably presented by thymic MHC, are selected against. The(More)
Cell-type plasticity within a tumor has recently been suggested to cause a bidirectional conversion between tumor-initiating stem cells and nonstem cells triggered by an inflammatory stroma. NF-κB represents a key transcription factor within the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, NF-κB's function in tumor-initiating cells has not been examined(More)
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade after Toll-like receptor stimulation enables innate immune cells to rapidly activate cytokine gene expression. A balanced response to signals of infectious danger requires that cellular activation is transient. Here, we identify the MAPK phosphatase dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) as(More)
Blood of both humans and mice contains 2 main monocyte subsets. Here, we investigated the extent of their similarity using a microarray approach. Approximately 270 genes in humans and 550 genes in mice were differentially expressed between subsets by 2-fold or more. More than 130 of these gene expression differences were conserved between mouse and human(More)
IL-10 regulates inflammation by reducing cytokine and chemokine production from activated macrophages. We performed microarray experiments to identify possible effector molecules of IL-10 and to investigate the global effect of IL-10 on the transcriptional response induced in LPS-activated macrophages. To exclude background effects of endogenous IL-10,(More)
The mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic analog trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB) are potent adjuvants for Th1/Th17 vaccination that activate Syk-Card9 signaling in APCs. In this study, we have further investigated the molecular mechanism of innate immune activation by TDM and TDB. The Syk-coupling adapter protein FcRgamma(More)
The MAPK family members p38, JNK, and ERK are all activated downstream of innate immunity's TLR to induce the production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. However, the relative intensity and duration of the activation of different MAPK appears to determine the type of immune response. The mammalian genome encodes a large number of dual specificity(More)
Bronchial epithelial cells represent the first line of defense against invading airborne pathogens. They are important contributors to innate mucosal immunity and provide a variety of antimicrobial effectors. However, mucosal surfaces are prone to contact with pathogenic, as well as nonpathogenic microbes, and therefore, immune recognition principles have(More)
Novel vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are urgently needed. The use of recombinant MTB antigens as subunit vaccines is a promising approach, but requires adjuvants that activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for elicitation of protective immunity. The mycobacterial cord factor Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) and its synthetic(More)