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In HIV-infected persons, low serum concentrations of vitamins and minerals, termed micronutrients, are associated with an increased risk of HIV disease progression and mortality. Micronutrient supplements can delay HIV disease progression and reduce mortality in HIV-positive persons not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). With the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the association of anemia with mortality and disease progression among a cohort of women with HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS Time to all-cause death, AIDS-related death, and a 50% decrease in CD4 cell count among 1078 HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in a clinical trial of vitamin supplementation from 1995-2003. (More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are susceptible to undernutrition, but modifiable risk factors and the time course of the development of undernutrition have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to identify maternal, socioeconomic and child characteristics that are associated(More)
Selenium deficiency has been implicated in accelerated disease progression and poorer survival among populations infected with HIV in developed countries, yet these associations remain unexamined in developing countries. Among 949 HIV-1-infected Tanzanian women who were pregnant, we prospectively examined the association between plasma selenium levels and(More)
The trace element zinc is involved in many important immune processes. A number of immunologic impairments owing to zinc deficiency are also evident in HIV disease, most notably a reduction in the number of circulating T lymphocytes. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting results on the role of zinc status in HIV disease progression.(More)
HIV infection is a global disease that disproportionately burdens populations with nutritional vulnerabilities. Laboratory experiments have shown that selenium has an inhibitory effect on HIV in vitro through antioxidant effects of glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins. Numerous studies have reported low selenium status in HIV-infected(More)
In HIV-infected populations from developing countries, it is unclear what proportion of anemia is attributable to iron deficiency (ID) and whether high body iron stores worsen HIV disease progression. We therefore evaluated these research questions in 584 HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR),(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between selenium status and child mortality and morbidity among children born to HIV-infected mothers. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS Study participants were originally part of a trial to study the effect of maternal vitamin supplements on maternal and child health outcomes. Morbidity information was collected(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of HIV-related outcomes among women and children in a resource-poor setting. DESIGN We measured serum CRP concentration among 606 HIV-infected women, all of whom were not taking highly-active antiretroviral therapy, 3 to 11 months after they gave birth, and assessed relationships of CRP to(More)
BACKGROUND In observational studies, adequate selenium status has been associated with better pregnancy outcomes and slowed HIV disease progression. OBJECTIVE We investigated the effects of daily selenium supplements on CD4 cell counts, viral load, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and infant mortality among 913 HIV-infected pregnant women. DESIGN In(More)