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BACKGROUND The origin of auditory hallucinations, which are one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia, is still a matter of debate. It has been hypothesized that alterations in connectivity between frontal and parietotemporal speech-related areas might contribute to the pathogenesis of auditory hallucinations. These networks are assumed to become(More)
A generally applicable method for almost complete suppression of signal artifacts on electrophysiological signals caused by B0-gradient switching (gradient noise) is presented. The method is demonstrated for electrocardiograms (ECGs) but can also be used for other electrophysiological signals. It takes advantage of the fact that under certain conditions,(More)
Intra-myocellular lipids (IMCL) are stored in droplets in the cytoplasm of muscle cells and are an energy storage form readily accessed during long-term exercise. 1H-MR spectroscopy methods are presented for noninvasive determination of IMCL in human muscle. This is based on (a) the separation of two resonances in the lipid-CH2-region, with the one assigned(More)
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle and chronic β-alanine (BA) supplementation can increase carnosine content. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study compared two different 8-week BA dosing regimens on the time course of muscle carnosine loading and 8-week washout, leading to a BA dose–response study with(More)
Short-echo-time magnetic resonance spectra of human brain contain broad contributions from macromolecules. As they are a priori of unknown shape and intensity, they pose a problem if one wants to quantitate the overlying spectral features from low-molecular-weight metabolites. On the other hand, the macromolecular contributions may provide relevant clinical(More)
A multimodal MR study including relaxometry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy was performed on patients with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) and matched controls, to improve our understanding of white matter (WM) lesions. Relaxometry yields information on myelin loss or malformation and may substantiate results from DTI attributed to(More)
An iterative nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm in the frequency domain using time domain models for quantification of complex frequency domain MR spectra is presented. The algorithm allows incorporation of prior knowledge and has both the advantage of time-domain fitting with respect to handling the problem of missing data points and truncated data(More)
Biochemical maturation of the brain can be studied noninvasively by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in human infants. Detailed time courses of cerebral tissue contents are known for the most abundant metabolites only, and whether or not premature birth affects biochemical maturation of the brain is disputed. Hence, the last trimester of gestation(More)
It was hypothesized that transcriptional reprogramming is involved in the structural and functional adaptations of lipid metabolism in human tibialis anterior muscle (TA) from endurance-trained male subjects. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated a significant upregulation of the mRNA level of key enzymes involved in 1) lipolytic mobilization of fatty acids (FA)(More)
Absolute quantitation of clinical (1)H-MR spectra is virtually always incomplete for single subjects because the separate determination of spectrum, baseline, and transverse and longitudinal relaxation times in single subjects is prohibitively long. Integrated Processing and Acquisition of Data (IPAD) based on a combined 2-dimensional experimental and(More)