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Error-free repair by homologous recombination of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation (IR) requires the Rad52 group proteins, including Rad51 and Rad54, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [1]. The formation of a 'joint' molecule between the damaged DNA and the homologous repair template is a key step in recombination mediated by Rad51(More)
Double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination occurs through the RAD52 pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its biological importance is underscored by the conservation of many RAD52 pathway genes, including RAD54, from fungi to humans. We have analyzed the phenotype of mouse RAD54-/- (mRAD54-/-) cells. Consistent with a DSB repair(More)
The human Rad50/Mre11/Nbs1 complex (hR/M/N) functions as an essential guardian of genome integrity by directing the proper processing of DNA ends, including DNA breaks. This biological function results from its ability to tether broken DNA molecules. hR/M/N's dynamic molecular architecture consists of a globular DNA-binding domain from which two 50-nm-long(More)
Nonreciprocal translocations and gene amplifications are commonly found in human tumors. Although little is known about the mechanisms leading to such aberrations, tissue culture models predict that they can arise from DNA breakage, followed by cycles of chromatid fusion, asymmetric mitotic breakage, and replication. Mice deficient in both a nonhomologous(More)
BACKGROUND Homologous recombination is of eminent importance both in germ cells, to generate genetic diversity during meiosis, and in somatic cells, to safeguard DNA from genotoxic damage. The genetically well-defined RAD52 pathway is required for these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes similar to those in the RAD52 group have been(More)
The DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is central to both DNA replication and repair. The ring-shaped homotrimeric PCNA encircles and slides along double-stranded DNA, acting as a "sliding clamp" that localizes proteins to DNA. We determined the behavior of green fluorescent protein-tagged human PCNA (GFP-hPCNA) in(More)
The Gin DNA invertase of bacteriophage Mu carries out processive recombination in which multiple rounds of exchange follow synaptic complex formation. The stereostructure of the knotted products determined by electron microscopy establishes critical features of site synapsis and DNA exchange. Surprisingly, the invertase knots substrates with directly(More)
The Gin DNA-inversion system of bacteriophage Mu normally requires a substrate containing two inverted recombination sites (gix) and an enhancer sequence on the same supercoiled DNA molecule. The reaction mechanism was investigated by separating these sites on catenated rings. Catenanes with the gix sites on one circle and the enhancer on the other(More)
The RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 protein complex (RMN) plays an essential role during the early steps of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. Previous data suggest that one important role for RMN in DSB repair is to provide a link between DNA ends. The striking architecture of the complex, a globular domain from which two extended coiled(More)