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The nisin gene cluster nisABTCIPR of Lactococcus lactis, located on a 10-kbp DNA fragment of the nisin-sucrose transposon Tn5276, was characterized. This fragment was previously shown to direct nisin-A biosynthesis and to contain the nisP and nisR genes, encoding a nisin leader peptidase and a positive regulator, respectively [van der Meer, J. R., Polman,(More)
Subtilases are members of the clan (or superfamily) of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. In this update of our previous overview (Siezen RJ, de Vos WM, Leunissen JAM, Dijkstra BW, 1991, Protein Eng 4:719-731), details of more than 100 new subtilases(More)
BACKGROUND In the past decades, various protein subcellular-location (SCL) predictors have been developed. Most of these predictors, like TMHMM 2.0, SignalP 3.0, PrediSi and Phobius, aim at the identification of one or a few SCLs, whereas others such as CELLO and Psortb.v.2.0 aim at a broader classification. Although these tools and pipelines can achieve a(More)
The 3,308,274-bp sequence of the chromosome of Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1, a single colony isolate of strain NCIMB8826 that was originally isolated from human saliva, has been determined, and contains 3,052 predicted protein-encoding genes. Putative biological functions could be assigned to 2,120 (70%) of the predicted proteins. Consistent with(More)
Noroviruses are the causative agents of the majority of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. During the past 15 years, noroviruses of genotype GGII.4 have caused four epidemic seasons of viral gastroenteritis, during which four novel variants (termed epidemic variants) emerged and displaced the resident viruses. In order to understand the mechanisms(More)
Lactobacilli belong to the lactic acid bacteria, which play a key role in industrial and artisan food raw-material fermentation, including a large variety of fermented dairy products. Next to their role in fermentation processes, specific strains of Lactobacillus are currently marketed as health-promoting cultures or probiotics. The last decade has(More)
Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping(More)
Nisin is a 3.4-kDa antimicrobial peptide that, as a result of posttranslational modifications, contains unsaturated amino acids and lanthionine residues. It is applied as a preservative in various food products. The solubility and stability of nisin and nisin mutants have been studied. It is demonstrated that nisin mutants can be produced with improved(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of a gene located immediately upstream of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 prtP gene encoding the cell envelope-attached proteinase was determined. This gene, designated prtM, was found to be transcribed from the same promotor region as was the proteinase gene but in the opposite direction. The prtM gene directed(More)
BACKGROUND Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of gram-positive, lactic acid producing Firmicutes. They have been extensively used in food fermentations, including the production of various dairy products. The proteolytic system of LAB converts proteins to peptides and then to amino acids, which is essential for bacterial growth and also contributes(More)