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Subtilases are members of the clan (or superfamily) of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. In this update of our previous overview (Siezen RJ, de Vos WM, Leunissen JAM, Dijkstra BW, 1991, Protein Eng 4:719-731), details of more than 100 new subtilases(More)
The nisin gene cluster nisABTCIPR of Lactococcus lactis, located on a 10-kbp DNA fragment of the nisin-sucrose transposon Tn5276, was characterized. This fragment was previously shown to direct nisin-A biosynthesis and to contain the nisP and nisR genes, encoding a nisin leader peptidase and a positive regulator, respectively [van der Meer, J. R., Polman,(More)
Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, greater than 50 subtilases are known, greater than 40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K). The mature enzymes(More)
We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for the cell envelope-located proteinase of Lactococcus lactis SK11. The gene contains a very AT-rich promoter region followed by the coding sequence of a protein of 1962 amino acids. Comparison of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the mature proteinase and the expected primary(More)
The small antimicrobial peptide nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, contains the uncommon amino acid residues dehydroalanine and dehydrobutyrine and five thio ether bridges. Since these structures are posttranslationally formed from Ser, Thr, and Cys residues, it is feasible to study their role in nisin function and biosynthesis by protein engineering.(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of a gene located immediately upstream of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 prtP gene encoding the cell envelope-attached proteinase was determined. This gene, designated prtM, was found to be transcribed from the same promotor region as was the proteinase gene but in the opposite direction. The prtM gene directed(More)
Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile and flexible species that is encountered in a variety of niches and can utilize a broad range of fermentable carbon sources. To assess if this versatility is linked to a variable gene pool, microarrays containing a subset of small genomic fragments of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 were used to perform stringent genotyping(More)
Noroviruses are the causative agents of the majority of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. During the past 15 years, noroviruses of genotype GGII.4 have caused four epidemic seasons of viral gastroenteritis, during which four novel variants (termed epidemic variants) emerged and displaced the resident viruses. In order to understand the mechanisms(More)
Nisin is a 3.4-kDa antimicrobial peptide that, as a result of posttranslational modifications, contains unsaturated amino acids and lanthionine residues. It is applied as a preservative in various food products. The solubility and stability of nisin and nisin mutants have been studied. It is demonstrated that nisin mutants can be produced with improved(More)
The Lactobacillus plantarum commensal WCFS1 contains four prophage elements in its genome. Lp1 and Lp2 are two about 40-kb-long uninducible prophages that share closely related DNA packaging, head and tail genes defining a second lineage of pac-site Siphoviridae in L. plantarum, distinct from L. plantarum phage phig1e, but related to Bacillus phage SPP1 and(More)