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We present clear experimental evidence showing that the contribution of bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction of laser-created plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths. We report anomalous fringe shifts in soft x-ray laser interferograms of Al laser-created plasmas. The comparison of measured and simulated interferograms shows that this results from(More)
We describe a soft-x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high-throughput amplitude-division interferometer and a 14.7-nm transient-inversion soft-x-ray laser that produces approximately 5-ps pulses. Because of its(More)
We have directly probed the conditions in which the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser is generated and propagates by measuring the near-field image and by utilizing picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser interferometry of the preformed Pd plasma gain medium. The electron density and gain region of the plasma have been determined experimentally(More)
We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps X-ray laser source at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ~LLNL! together with a Mach-Zehnder type diffraction grating interferometer built at Colorado State University for probing dense, high intensity laser-produced plasmas. The short wavelength and pulse length of the probe reduces refraction, absorption(More)
ƒ " Nanoscale patterning in high resolution HSQ photoresist by interferometric lithography with table top EUV lasers ". ƒ [pdf] " Volume extreme ultraviolet holographic imaging with numerical optical sectioning ". ƒ [pdf] " Patterning of nano-scale arrays by table top extreme ultraviolet laser interferometric lithography ". ƒ [pdf] " Sub 400 nm spatial(More)
We report anomalous fringe shifts observed in soft X-ray laser interferograms of laser-created Al plasmas. This clear experimental evidence shows that the contribution of bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction of laser-created plasmas at soft X-ray wavelengths, resulting in values greater than 1. The comparison of measured and simulated(More)
—We discuss the demonstration of gain-saturated high repetition rate table-top soft X-ray lasers producing microwatt average powers at wavelengths ranging from 13.9 to 33 nm. The results were obtained heating a precreated plasma with a picosecond optical laser pulse impinging at grazing incidence onto a precreated plasma. This pumping geometry increases the(More)
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