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Adoption strategies for Software Product Lines (SPL) frequently involve bootstrapping existing products into a SPL and extending an existing SPL to encompass another product. One way to do that is to use program refactorings. However, the traditional notion of refactoring does not handle appropriately feature models (FM), nor transformations involving(More)
The C preprocessor is commonly used to implement variability in program families. Despite the widespread usage, some studies indicate that the C preprocessor makes variability implementation difficult and error-prone. However, we still lack studies to investigate preprocessor-based syntax errors and quantify to what extent they occur in practice. In this(More)
Some approaches have been used to investigate evidence on how developers refactor their code, whether refactorings activities may decrease the number of bugs, or improve developers' productivity. However, there are some contradicting evidence in previous studies. For instance, some investigations found evidence that if the number of refactoring changes(More)
—Feature models and configuration knowledge drive product generation in a Software Product Line (SPL). Mistakes when specifying these models or in the implementation might result in ill-formed products — the safe composition problem. This work proposes an automated approach for verifying safe composition for SPLs with explicit configuration knowledge(More)
The variability of configurable systems may lead to configuration-related issues (i.e., faults and warnings) that appear only when we select certain configuration options. Previous studies found that issues related to configurability are harder to detect than issues that appear in all configurations, because variability increases the complexity. However,(More)
A technique is presented for obtaining a specification from a requirement through a series of incremental steps. The starting point is a Problem Frame description, involving a decomposition of the environment into interconnected domains and a formal requirement on phenomena of those domains. In each step, the requirement is moved towards the machine,(More)
To safely evolve a software product line, it is important to have a notion of product line refinement that assures behavior preservation of the original product line products. So in this article we present a language independent theory of product line refinement, establishing refinement properties that justify stepwise and compositional product line(More)
Equivalence notions for object models are usually too concrete in the sense that they assume that the compared models are formed by elements with the same names. This is not adequate in several situations: during model refactoring, when using auxiliary model elements, or when the compared models comprise distinct but corresponding elements. So, in this(More)
The C preprocessor has received strong criticism in academia, among others regarding separation of concerns, error proneness, and code obfuscation, but is widely used in practice. Many (mostly academic) alternatives to the preprocessor exist, but have not been adopted in practice. Since developers continue to use the preprocessor despite all criticism and(More)
A feature model (FM) defines the valid combinations of features, whose combinations correspond to a program in a Software Product Line (SPL). FMs may evolve, for instance, during refactoring activities. Developers may use a catalog of refactorings as support. However, the catalog is incomplete in principle. Additionally, it is non-trivial to propose correct(More)