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The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an ongoing primary care database of anonymised medical records from general practitioners, with coverage of over 11.3 million patients from 674 practices in the UK. With 4.4 million active (alive, currently registered) patients meeting quality criteria, approximately 6.9% of the UK population are included(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate current risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes and inform selection and implementation of these in practice. DESIGN Systematic review using standard (quantitative) and realist (mainly qualitative) methodology. Inclusion criteria Papers in any language describing the development or external validation, or both, of models and(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnicity recording across the National Health Service (NHS) has improved dramatically over the past decade. This study profiles the completeness, consistency and representativeness of routinely collected ethnicity data in both primary care and hospital settings. METHODS Completeness and consistency of ethnicity recording was examined in the(More)
OBJECTIVE In clinical trials of dabigatran and rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), drug eligibility and dosing were determined using the Cockcroft-Gault equation to estimate creatine clearance as a measure of renal function. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare whether using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of mortality and hospital use. Little is known in the UK about the variation in COPD prevalence, severity, and management depending on ethnicity. AIM To examine differences by ethnicity in COPD prevalence, severity, and management. DESIGN & SETTING Cross-sectional study using(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and usually occurs in patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) may mitigate the renal ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with cardiac surgery and may be a preventive strategy for postsurgical AKI. We undertook a randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke risk by ethnic group in south and east London; to compare classification with CHA2DS2VASc and CHADS2; to examine the appropriateness of anticoagulant treatment and historic trends in prescribing by gender, age, and ethnicity. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Routine general(More)
The process of courtship and marriage in sub-Saharan Africa has changed remarkably. These changes, however, have received scant attention, as recent research has focused on adolescent relationships' links to HIV/AIDS rather than to marriage. Drawing on detailed reports of 1,365 romantic and sexual partnerships from youths in Kisumu, Kenya, we find that(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess whether in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c>7.5%) improvement in HbA1c varies by ethnic and social group. DESIGN Prospective 2-year cohort of type 2 diabetes treated in general practice. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS All patients with type 2 diabetes in 100 of the 101 general practices in two London boroughs. The(More)