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Container classes such as lists, sets, or maps are elementary data structures common to many programming languages. Since they are a part of standard libraries, they are important to test, which led to research on advanced testing techniques targeting such containers and research on comparing testing techniques using such containers. However, these(More)
In tomato leaves, excision and light treatments increase phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, which is contributed by three PAL isoforms. These isoforms possessed similar native and subunit Mr, but were different in their pI, Km for Phe and optimal pH for activity. Also these were differentially induced and affected by metabolites belonging to particular(More)
Generation of complex input data structures is one of the challenging tasks in testing. Manual generation of such structures is tedious and error-prone. Automated generation approaches include those based on constraints, which generate structures at the concrete representation level, and those based on sequences of operations, which generate structures at(More)
BACKGROUND A number of defects in excitation-contraction coupling have been identified in failing mammalian hearts. The goal of this study was to measure the defects in intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in left ventricular epicardial myocytes of the whole heart in an animal model of congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS Intracellular Ca(2+)(More)
A fundamental question in software testing research is how to compare test suites, often as a means for comparing test-generation techniques. Researchers frequently compare test suites by measuring their coverage. A coverage criterion C provides a set of test requirements and measures how many requirements a given suite satisfies. A suite that satisfies(More)
Defects in excitation-contraction coupling have been reported in failing hearts, but little is known about the relationship between these defects and the development of heart failure (HF). We compared the early changes in intracellular Ca(2+) cycling to those that underlie overt pump dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis found later in HF. Laser-scanning(More)
Males and females show distinct differences in action potential waveform, ion channel expression patterns, and ECG characteristics. However, it is not known how sex-based differences in Ca2+ cycling might contribute to these differences in electrophysiological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the differences in cellular Ca2+ transients in(More)
Pathological conditions, including ischemia and heart failure, are associated with altered sodium channel function and increased late sodium current (I(Na,L)), leading to prolonged action potential duration, increased intracellular sodium and calcium concentrations, and arrhythmias. We used anemone toxin (ATX)-II to study the effects of increasing I(Na,L)(More)
A fundamental question in software testing research is how to compare test suites, often as a means for comparing test-generation techniques that produce those test suites. Researchers frequently compare test suites by measuring their <i>coverage</i>. A coverage criterion <i>C</i> provides a set of test requirements and measures how many requirements a(More)
AIM To investigate the prevalence of clinically unrecognized mitral regurgitation (MR) in lone atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS We studied the prevalence and severity of MR by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with "lone" AF as compared to a matched cohort of patients in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) undergoing TEE for other indications(More)