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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)
SNAREs and Rab GTPases cooperate in vesicle transport through a mechanism yet poorly understood. We now demonstrate that the Rab5 effectors EEA1 and Rabaptin-5/Rabex-5 exist on the membrane in high molecular weight oligomers, which also contain NSF. Oligomeric assembly is modulated by the ATPase activity of NSF. Syntaxin 13, the t-SNARE required for(More)
Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors are critical to directing tissue-specific gene expression. To build a global atlas of these combinations, we have screened for physical interactions among the majority of human and mouse DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). The complete networks contain 762 human and 877 mouse interactions. Analysis(More)
The synthesis of the visible pigment melanin by the melanocyte cell is the basis of the human pigmentary system, those genes directing the formation, transport and distribution of the specialised melanosome organelle in which melanin accumulates can legitimately be called pigmentation genes. The genes involved in this process have been identified through(More)
Each organelle of the secretory pathway is required to selectively allow transit of newly synthesized secretory and plasma membrane proteins and also to maintain a unique set of resident proteins that define its structural and functional properties. In the case of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), residency is achieved in two ways: (a) prevention of residents(More)
The LEAFY/FLORICAULA genes from Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum are necessary for normal flower development and play a key role in diverse angiosperm species. A homologue of these flower meristem-identity genes, NEEDLY (NLY), has been identified in Pinus radiata. Although the NLY protein shares extensive sequence similarity with its angiosperm counterparts, it(More)
Macropinocytosis represents a distinct pathway of endocytosis in mammalian cells. This actin-driven endocytic process is not directly co-ordinated by the presence of cargo but can be induced upon activation of growth factor signalling pathways. The capacity to dissect the contribution of macropinocytosis to cellular processes has been hampered by a lack of(More)
The specification of floral organ identity during development depends on the function of a limited number of homeotic genes grouped into three classes: A, B, and C. Pairs of paralogous B class genes, such as DEF and GLO in Antirrhinum, and AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis, are required for establishing petal and stamen identity. To gain a better understanding of(More)
The polypeptide backbones and side chains of proteins are constantly moving due to thermal motion and the kinetic energy of the atoms. The B-factors of protein crystal structures reflect the fluctuation of atoms about their average positions and provide important information about protein dynamics. Computational approaches to predict thermal motion are(More)