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Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides are more frequent in the genomes of bacteria and viruses than of vertebrates. We report here that bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides induce murine B cells to proliferate and secrete immunoglobulin in vitro and in vivo. This activation is enhanced by simultaneous signals(More)
Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors are critical to directing tissue-specific gene expression. To build a global atlas of these combinations, we have screened for physical interactions among the majority of human and mouse DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). The complete networks contain 762 human and 877 mouse interactions. Analysis(More)
SNAREs and Rab GTPases cooperate in vesicle transport through a mechanism yet poorly understood. We now demonstrate that the Rab5 effectors EEA1 and Rabaptin-5/Rabex-5 exist on the membrane in high molecular weight oligomers, which also contain NSF. Oligomeric assembly is modulated by the ATPase activity of NSF. Syntaxin 13, the t-SNARE required for(More)
Retrograde transport pathways from early/recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) are poorly defined. We have investigated the role of TGN golgins in retrograde trafficking. Of the four TGN golgins, p230/golgin-245, golgin-97, GCC185, and GCC88, we show that GCC88 defines a retrograde transport pathway from early endosomes to the TGN. Depletion(More)
We present here LOCATE, a curated, web-accessible database that houses data describing the membrane organization and subcellular localization of proteins from the FANTOM3 Isoform Protein Sequence set. Membrane organization is predicted by the high-throughput, computational pipeline MemO. The subcellular locations of selected proteins from this set were(More)
The international FANTOM consortium aims to produce a comprehensive picture of the mammalian transcriptome, based upon an extensive cDNA collection and functional annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs. The previous dataset, FANTOM2, comprised 60,770 full-length enriched cDNAs. Functional annotation revealed that this cDNA dataset contained only about(More)
BACKGROUND The genomic revolution has led to rapid growth in sequencing of genes and proteins, and attention is now turning to the function of the encoded proteins. In this respect, microscope imaging of a protein's sub-cellular localisation is proving invaluable, and recent advances in automated fluorescent microscopy allow protein localisations to be(More)
A new method has been developed for prediction of transmembrane helices using support vector machines. Different coding schemes of protein sequences were explored, and their performances were assessed by crossvalidation tests. The best performance method can predict the transmembrane helices with sensitivity of 93.4% and precision of 92.0%. For each(More)
MOTIVATION A major issue in cell biology today is how distinct intracellular regions of the cell, like the Golgi Apparatus, maintain their unique composition of proteins and lipids. The cell differentially separates Golgi resident proteins from proteins that move through the organelle to other subcellular destinations. We set out to determine if we could(More)