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Two types of stem cells are currently defined in small intestinal crypts: cycling crypt base columnar (CBC) cells and quiescent '+4' cells. Here, we combine transcriptomics with proteomics to define a definitive molecular signature for Lgr5(+) CBC cells. Transcriptional profiling of FACS-sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells and their daughters using two microarray(More)
The chromosomal position of human genes is rapidly being established. We integrated these mapping data with genome-wide messenger RNA expression profiles as provided by SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). Over 2.45 million SAGE transcript tags, including 160,000 tags of neuroblastomas, are presently known for 12 tissue types. We developed algorithms(More)
Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis of a Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) brain tumor from(More)
BACKGROUND Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Despite recent improvements in cure rates, prediction of disease outcome remains a major challenge and survivors suffer from serious therapy-related side-effects. Recent data showed that patients with WNT-activated tumors have a favorable prognosis, suggesting that these(More)
The transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, as it is often highly expressed and sometimes amplified in these tumors. Little is known of the downstream pathways regulated by OTX2. We therefore generated MED8A and DAOY medulloblastoma cell lines with doxycycline-inducible OTX2(More)
Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The pathogenesis has for a long time been quite enigmatic, as only very few gene defects were identified in this often lethal tumour. Frequently detected gene alterations are limited to MYCN amplification (20%) and ALK activations (7%). Here we present a whole-genome sequence(More)
Wnt signaling activates gene expression through the induced formation of complexes between DNA-binding T-cell factors (TCFs) and the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin. In colorectal cancer, activating Wnt pathway mutations transform epithelial cells through the inappropriate activation of a TCF7L2/TCF4 target gene program. Through a DNA array-based(More)
Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor, is typically associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations. Surgically inaccessible midline tumors are therapeutically challenging, showing sustained tendency for progression and often becoming a chronic disease with substantial morbidities. Here we describe(More)
Aberrant epigenetic changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation are hallmarks of most cancers, whereas histone methylation was previously considered to be irreversible and less versatile. Recently, several histone demethylases were identified catalyzing the removal of methyl groups from histone H3 lysine residues and thereby influencing gene(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) induces differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and is used with variable success to treat aggressive forms of this disease. This variability in clinical response to RA is enigmatic, as no mutations in components of the RA signaling cascade have been found. Using a large-scale RNAi genetic screen, we identify crosstalk between the(More)