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Matter with a high energy density (>10(5) joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived(More)
Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal(More)
The motion of atoms on interatomic potential energy surfaces is fundamental to the dynamics of liquids and solids. An accelerator-based source of femtosecond x-ray pulses allowed us to follow directly atomic displacements on an optically modified energy landscape, leading eventually to the transition from crystalline solid to disordered liquid. We show(More)
A high-temperature plasma is created when an intense laser pulse is focused onto the surface of a solid. An ultrafast pulse of x-ray radiation is emitted from such a plasma when the laser pulse length is less than a picosecond. A high-speed streak camera detector was used to determine the duration of these x-ray pulses, and computer simulations of the(More)
Intense femtosecond laser excitation can produce transient states of matter that would otherwise be inaccessible to laboratory investigation. At high excitation densities, the interatomic forces that bind solids and determine many of their properties can be substantially altered. Here, we present the detailed mapping of the carrier density-dependent(More)
Linear-accelerator-based sources will revolutionize ultrafast x-ray science due to their unprecedented brightness and short pulse duration. However, time-resolved studies at the resolution of the x-ray pulse duration are hampered by the inability to precisely synchronize an external laser to the accelerator. At the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source at the(More)
Electron mobility within iron (oxyhydr)oxides enables charge transfer between widely separated surface sites. There is increasing evidence that this internal conduction influences the rates of interfacial reactions and the outcomes of redox-driven phase transformations of environmental interest. To determine the links between crystal structure and(More)
Detailed measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of compressed CH shells approaching pressures of 50 Mbar are achieved with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Laser-produced 9 keV x-rays probe the plasma during the transient state of three-shock coalescence. High signal-to-noise x-ray scattering spectra show direct(More)
Pump-probe time-resolved x-ray diffraction of allowed and nearly forbidden reflections in InSb is used to follow the propagation of a coherent acoustic pulse generated by ultrafast laser excitation. The surface and bulk components of the strain could be simultaneously measured due to the large x-ray penetration depth. Comparison of the experimental data(More)
Using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we investigate the non-adiabatic dynamics of the prototypical ethylene (C(2)H(4)) molecule upon π → π∗ excitation. In this first part of a two part series, we focus on the lifetime of the excited electronic state. The femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectrum (TRPES) of ethylene is simulated(More)