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PURPOSE This article reports on trends and correlates of the nonmedical use of prescription opioids among youth. METHODS Secondary analyses of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were performed on youths, ages 12 to 17. RESULTS Analyses revealed evidence of an emerging epidemic of opioid misuse among teenagers. Sub-groups of youth at(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of a teacher-delivered curriculum in favorably modifying acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--related knowledge and beliefs, self-efficacy related to AIDS-preventive actions, and involvement in AIDS risk behaviors among an eligible population of 1316 New York City high school students. DESIGN Students in two(More)
The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 African-American adults recruited from 15 churches in Atlanta,(More)
OBJECTIVES To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. DESIGN Analysis of multiple cross-sectional(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking rates are projected to increase substantially in developing countries such as South Africa. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of two contrasting approaches to school-based smoking prevention in South African youth compared to the standard health education program. One experimental program was based on a skills(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the occurrence of rape/attempted rape and verbal sexual coercion among an ethnically diverse adolescent population and to evaluate whether unique risk factors existed for victims of either type of forced sexual experience. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey assessing sexual violence within the past 12 months, behaviors that occurred(More)
We conducted a study of the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to modify risk factors associated with coronary heart disease among 3388 children in 37 schools in two demographically dissimilar areas (the Bronx and Westchester County) in and around New York City. Schools within each area were randomly assigned to either intervention or(More)
To guide acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention program planning, 181 tenth grade students residing in or near an AIDS epicenter completed a survey measuring past year involvement in sexual intercourse and condom use, beliefs about self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors, and beliefs about susceptibility to and severity of AIDS, and(More)
OBJECTIVES We determined the prevalence of asthma and estimated baseline asthma symptoms and asthma management strategies among children aged 0-12 years in Central Harlem. METHODS The Harlem Children's Zone Asthma Initiative is a longitudinal, community-based intervention designed for poor children with asthma. Children aged 0-12 years who live or go to(More)
BACKGROUND The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the(More)