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We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had(More)
sophisticated enough to defeat the visual prowess of diverse predators — teleost fishes, diving birds and marine mammals. Curiously, the quantification and experimental testing of camouflage principles have scarcely been addressed by biologists. By studying the cephalopods, we may have stumbled onto some general principles of animal coloration. Most animals(More)
Laboratory mazes were used to study spatial-learning capabilities in cuttlefish (Sepia offcinalis), using escape for reinforcement. In preliminary observations, cuttlefish in an artificial pond moved actively around the environment and appeared to learn about features of their environment. In laboratory experiments, cuttlefish exited a simple alley maze(More)
Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt(More)
Although hearing has been described for many underwater species, there is much debate regarding if and how cephalopods detect sound. Here we quantify the acoustic sensitivity of the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) using near-field acoustic and shaker-generated acceleration stimuli. Sound field pressure and particle motion components were measured from 30 to(More)
A mass spawning of squid resembles, at first glance, a chaotic "nuptial dance" (1). But for the first time, we have applied 3-D, radio-linked acoustic positioning (RAP) to this confusing process, and our early results now reveal a choreography that is, in fact, well organized in time and space. Remote tracking with RAP of individual Loligo vulgaris(More)
We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were(More)
Cephalopods are known for their ability to change camouflage body patterns in response to changes in the visual background. Recent research has used artificial substrates such as checkerboards to investigate some specific visual cues that elicit the various camouflaged patterns in cuttlefish. In this study, we took information from experiments on artificial(More)
Disruptive body coloration is a primary camouflage tactic of cuttlefish. Because rapid changeable coloration of cephalopods is guided visually, we can present different visual backgrounds (e.g., computer-generated, two-dimensional prints) and video record the animal's response by describing and grading its body pattern. We showed previously that strength of(More)