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Body size and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate, and the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of animals ranging in size from unicells to mammals has been thought to be proportional to body mass (M) raised to the power of three-quarters for over 40 years. However, recent evidence from rigorously selected datasets suggests that this is not the(More)
The importance of size as a determinant of metabolic rate (MR) was first suggested by Sarrus and Rameaux over 160 years ago. Max Rubner's finding of a proportionality between MR and body surface area in dogs (in 1883) was consistent with Sarrus and Rameaux's formulation and suggested a proportionality between MR and body mass (Mb) raised to the power of(More)
The form of the relationship between the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (M) of mammals has been at issue for almost seven decades, with debate focusing on the value of the scaling exponent (b, where BMR is proportional to M(b)) and the relative merits of b= 0.67 (geometric scaling) and b= 0.75 (quarter-power scaling). However, most analyses are(More)
The controversial relationship between body mass and basal metabolic rate in animals revolves around two questions: what is the allometric scaling exponent and what is the functional basis for it? For mammals, the first question could be resolved if measurements from all 4600 extant species were available, but this study shows that data for only 150(More)
Here we comment on a recent article (Gartner et al. 2010 ) that addresses previous adaptive interpretations of heart position in the context of gravity effects on blood circulation of snakes. The authors used phylogenetically based statistical methods and concluded that both habitat and phylogeny influence heart position, which they contend is relatively(More)
The physiological mechanisms that determine basal metabolic rate (BMR) of endotherms have long been debated. This journal has recently presented a new model, based on biophysical principles of heat flux through the tissues of mammals, that attempts to explain the allometric relationship between BMR and body size. We offer a critique of the model and(More)
Semi-fossorial animals (burrowing surface foragers) need to balance the competing morphological requirements of terrestrial and burrowing locomotion. These species rarely show the same degree of claw, forelimb and pectoral girdle structural development that fully fossorial forms (burrowing subterranean foragers) do, but nevertheless invest considerable(More)
Physiological, anatomical, and developmental features of the crocodilian heart support the paleontological evidence that the ancestors of living crocodilians were active and endothermic, but the lineage reverted to ectothermy when it invaded the aquatic, ambush predator niche. In endotherms, there is a functional nexus between high metabolic rates, high(More)
In neotropical forests, adults of many large scarab beetle species spend most of their time inside the floral chambers of heat-producing flowers, where they feed and mate throughout the night and rest during the following day, before briefly flying to another flower. Here we measure floral temperatures in Philodendron solimoesense (Araceae) in French Guiana(More)
Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve(More)