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Body size and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate, and the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of animals ranging in size from unicells to mammals has been thought to be proportional to body mass (M) raised to the power of three-quarters for over 40 years. However, recent evidence from rigorously selected datasets suggests that this is not the(More)
The importance of size as a determinant of metabolic rate (MR) was first suggested by Sarrus and Rameaux over 160 years ago. Max Rubner's finding of a proportionality between MR and body surface area in dogs (in 1883) was consistent with Sarrus and Rameaux's formulation and suggested a proportionality between MR and body mass (Mb) raised to the power of(More)
The form of the relationship between the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (M) of mammals has been at issue for almost seven decades, with debate focusing on the value of the scaling exponent (b, where BMR is proportional to M(b)) and the relative merits of b= 0.67 (geometric scaling) and b= 0.75 (quarter-power scaling). However, most analyses are(More)
The controversial relationship between body mass and basal metabolic rate in animals revolves around two questions: what is the allometric scaling exponent and what is the functional basis for it? For mammals, the first question could be resolved if measurements from all 4600 extant species were available, but this study shows that data for only 150(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Several families of tropical plants have thermogenic flowers that show a 2-d protogynous sequence. Most are pollinated by large beetles that remain for the entire period in the flowers, where they compete for mates and feed. Active beetles require high body temperatures that they can achieve endogenously at great energy expense or attain(More)
Semi-fossorial animals (burrowing surface foragers) need to balance the competing morphological requirements of terrestrial and burrowing locomotion. These species rarely show the same degree of claw, forelimb and pectoral girdle structural development that fully fossorial forms (burrowing subterranean foragers) do, but nevertheless invest considerable(More)
Here we comment on a recent article (Gartner et al. 2010 ) that addresses previous adaptive interpretations of heart position in the context of gravity effects on blood circulation of snakes. The authors used phylogenetically based statistical methods and concluded that both habitat and phylogeny influence heart position, which they contend is relatively(More)
The effects of temperature on pollen germination and pollen tube growth rate were measured in vitro in thermogenic skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus renifolius Schott ex Tzvelev, and related to floral temperatures in the field. This species has physiologically thermoregulatory spadices that maintain temperatures near 23 degrees C, even in sub-freezing air. Tests(More)
The physiological mechanisms that determine basal metabolic rate (BMR) of endotherms have long been debated. This journal has recently presented a new model, based on biophysical principles of heat flux through the tissues of mammals, that attempts to explain the allometric relationship between BMR and body size. We offer a critique of the model and(More)