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The trade-off between current and future reproduction plays an important role in demographic analyses. This can be revealed by the relationship between the number of years without reproduction and reproductive investment within a reproductive year. However, estimating both the duration between two successive breeding season and reproductive effort is often(More)
The frequency at which individuals breed is an important parameter in population, as well as in evolutionary, studies. However, when nonbreeding individuals are absent from the study area, the reproductive skipping is usually confounded with a recapture failure and cannot be estimated directly. Yet, there are situations in which external information may(More)
Spatial heterogeneity, especially in mortality risk, is a major factor shaping population dynamics. Here we study the impacts of spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure on the demography of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola, a relatively long-lived migratory game bird. We develop capture–recapture–recovery models in which both seasonality and spatial(More)
Alterations of the endothelium may play a role in the generation of cerebral vasospasm. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the endothelium and of endogenous endothelin (ET) on the NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG)-induced contractions in isolated rat basilar arteries. L-NOARG, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther, and methylene blue,(More)
Natural selection is a central tenet of evolutionary theory, yet the estimation of the direction and intensity of selection remains problematic. Here, we assess the strength of selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual ornament, bill colour, in male European blackbirds (Turdus merula) using 5 years of capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data. The(More)
The objective of this study was to compare the relaxant effects of the K+ channel openers pinacidil and lemakalim in isolated human pial arteries with the effects of the dihydropyridines nifedipine and nimodipine and the prostacyclin analog iloprost. Relaxation was measured in vessels contracted by 40 mmol/L K+. In contrast to the potent and consistent(More)
Trap-awareness and related phenomena whereby successive capture events are not independent is a feature of the majority of capture-recapture studies. This phenomenon was up to now difficult to incorporate in open population models and most authors have chosen to neglect it although this may have damaging consequences. Focusing on the situation where animals(More)
In long-lived species, individuals can skip reproduction. The proportion of breeders affects population growth rate and viability, there is a need to investigate the factors influencing intermittent breeding. The theory predicts that if lack of experience is an important constraint, breeding probabilities should increase with experience for individuals of(More)
1. Sex plays a crucial role in evolutionary life histories. However, the inclusion of sex in demographic analysis may be a challenge in fieldwork, particularly in monomorphic species. Although behavioural data may help us to sex individuals in the field, this kind of data is unlikely to be error free and is usually discarded. 2. Here we propose a(More)
Studies of wild vertebrates have provided evidence of substantial differences in lifetime reproduction among individuals and the sequences of life history 'states' during life (breeding, nonbreeding, etc.). Such differences may reflect 'fixed' differences in fitness components among individuals determined before, or at the onset of reproductive life. Many(More)